In English grammar , a disjunct is a type of sentence adverb that comments on the content or manner of what is being said or written. Put another way, a disjunct is a word or phrase that explicitly expresses the stance of a speaker or writer. These are also called sentence adjuncts or sentence modifiers. In effect, says David Crystal, disjuncts "look down from above on a clause, making a judgment about what it is saying or how it is phrased," Crystal, David.
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Homework checking 2. Seeing Tom , she smiles. Whenever left alone , he cried. Does he write to his parents because he misses them, or only because he wants some money?
B: Yes, probably. Adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentence. Tear gas was indiscriminatively sprayed on the protesters. Adjuncts 3 E. Adjuncts 3 general volitional formulaic With great unease , they elected him as their leader. Adjuncts 3 direction position I take the book from the shelf. She ran past the church. I live in a small village. He is over there. Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency first, still, yet, already, etc.
They symbolically buried the car as a protest against pollution. In final position: process - place - time E. He was working with his shears process in the garden place the whole morning time.
The normal relative order can be changed to suit the desire for end-focus. A clause normally comes after other structures to avoid ambiguity E. We stood talking for a very long time A1 where the fire had been A2. Longer adjuncts tend to follow shorter adjuncts. I was studying earlier A1 in the university library A2. See more in 8. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases or prepositional phrases.
The normal position for most conjuncts is initial. Conjuncts often have a separate tone unit. Conjuncts 5 also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, above all, what is more, then informal , etc.
Conjuncts 5 equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, etc. Conjuncts 5 by the way, incidentally, etc. Conjuncts 5 then, all in all, in conclusion, to sum up, etc. Conjuncts 5 namely, in other words, for instance, that is, that is to say, for example, etc. Conjuncts 5 consequently, hence, thus, so, therefore, as a result, etc. Conjuncts 5 else, otherwise, then, in other words, in that case, etc. Conjuncts 5 better, rather, in other words, etc. Conjuncts 5 instead, then, on the contrary, in contrast, by comparison, on the other hand, etc.
Conjuncts 5 anyhow, anyway, besides, else, however, still nevertheless, yet, in any case, at any rate, after all in spite of that, on the other hand, all the same, etc. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.
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Disjunct in Grammar
A type of adverb or sentence adverb that expresses a condition or hypothesis. Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist. English and Rhetoric Professor. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Updated February 12,
In linguistics , a disjunct is a type of adverbial adjunct that expresses information that is not considered essential to the sentence it appears in, but which is considered to be the speaker's or writer's attitude towards, or descriptive statement of, the propositional content of the sentence, "expressing, for example, the speaker's degree of truthfulness or his manner of speaking. A specific type of disjunct is the sentence adverb or sentence adverbial , which modifies a sentence , or a clause within a sentence, to convey the mood, attitude or sentiments of the speaker, rather than an adverb modifying a verb , an adjective or another adverb within a sentence. More generally, the term disjunct can be used to refer to any sentence element that is not fully integrated into the clausal structure of the sentence. Such elements usually appear peripherally at the beginning or end of the sentence and are set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma in writing and a pause in speech. Meaning "I'm honest when I say I didn't do it" rather than "I didn't do it in an honest way. Sometimes, the same word or phrase can be interpreted either as a disjunct or as a simple adjunct:. An example of a sentence adverb modifying a sentence is: Unfortunately, when I got to the supermarket it had run out of the vegetable I like.
From the point of view of the message that is to be expressed in a clause, a good deal of the information to be conveyed can only be expressed by means of adverbials. Adverbials fulfil a wide variety of functions: some of them can be used to express when and where the event represented by the proposition took place, while others can be used to express other accompanying circumstances, such as manner, cause and reason. The following sections will primarily address the distinction between adverbs and adverbials, the different types of adverbials we can recognize, the different positions in the clause at which adverbials occur, and the semantic content expressed by different types of adverbials. Adverb is the term we use for a particular word class. The vast majority of adverbs are formed from adjectives by addition of the suffix —ly: happily, quickly, reluctantly.
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