Experiment : Based on reconstructive memory - retrieval Aim : Investigate if schema processing influences both encoding and retrieval Method Experimental where participants were given one schema at encoding stage and another at retrieval stage to see if it were influenced by the last schema when they had to recall the information. Procedure : Participants were to hear a story about two boys who decided to stay away from school one day, instead they went to the home of one of them because the house was always empty on Thursdays. The house was described as being isolated and located in an attractive neighbourhood, but also having a leaky roof and a damp basement. The story also mentioned various objects in the house like speed bike, colour TV and a rare coin collection.
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They are mental representations of categories from our knowledge, beliefs and expectations about particular aspects of the world such as people, objects, events, and situations. Social schemas e. Americans, Egyptians, women, accountants, etc. Information we already know affects the way we interpret new information and events and how we store it in our memory. It is not possible to see how knowledge is processed and stored in the brain, but the concept of schema theory helps psychologists understand and discuss what cannot be seen.
Schema theory can describe how specific knowledge is organised and stored in memory so that it can be retrieved. State what you are doing in the essay Schema theory will be evaluated, making an appraisal by weighing up strengths and limitations with some reference to studies on the effect of schema on memory.
Schema theory provides the theoretical basis for the studies reported below. Body Supporting Studies. Bartlett aimed to determine how social and cultural factors influence schemas and hence can lead to memory distortions.
Participants used were of an English background. Tested their memory of the story using serial reproduction and repeated reproduction, where they were asked to recall it six or seven times over various retention intervals. Repeated reproduction: the same participant reproduces the story six or seven times from their own previous reproductions.
Their reproductions occur between time intervals from 15 minutes to as long as several years. Both methods lead to similar results. As the number of reproductions increased, the story became shorter and there were more changes to the story.
He found that recalled stories were distorted and altered in various ways making it more conventional and acceptable to their own cultural perspective rationalization. It also contributes to understanding of cognitive distortions in memory. To investigate if schema processing influences encoding and retrieval. Half the participants were given the schema of a burglar and the other half was given the schema of a potential house-buyer.
Participants then heard a story which was based on 72 points, previously rated by a group of people based on their importance to a potential house-buyer leaky roof, damp basement or a burglar 10speed bike, colour TV.
Participants performed a distraction task for 12 minutes, before recall was tested. After another 5 minute delay, half of the participants were given the switched schema. Participants with burglar schema were given house-buyer schema and vice versa. The other half of the participants kept the same schema.
After they had recalled as much as they could of the story from the perspective they had been given, they were shifted to the alternative perspective schema and were asked to recall the story again. The group who kept the same schema did not recall as many ideas in the second testing.
Research also showed that people encoded different information which was irrelevant to their prevailing schema those who had buyer schema at encoding were able to recall burglar information when the schema was changed, and vice versa. Summary: On the second recall, participants recalled more information that was important only to the second perspective or schema than they had done on the first recall.
Schema processing has an influence at the encoding and retrieval stage, as new schema influenced recall at the retrieval stage. Strength of schema theorythere is research evidence to support it. Another study demonstrating schema theory is by Brewer and Treyens To see whether a stereotypical schema of an office would affect memory recall of an office. Participants were taken into a university student office and left for 35 seconds before being taken to another room.
They were asked to write down as much as they could remember from the office. They did not recall the wine and picnic basket that were in the office.
Participants' schema of an office influenced their memory of it. Our schemas influence what we recall in our memory. Strength of schema theory — there is many types of research evidence to support it. A further study demonstrating schematic influence is by French and Richards To investigate the schemata influence on memory retrieval. Condition 2: The same procedure, except the participants were told beforehand that they would be required to draw the clock from memory.
Condition 3: The clock was left in full view of the participants and just had to draw it. In the first two conditions, the participants reverted to the conventional IV notation, whereas in the third condition, the IIII notation, because of the direct copy.
French and Richards explained this result in terms of schematic knowledge of roman numerals affecting memory retrieval. The findings supported the idea that subjects in the copy condition were more likely than subjects in other conditions to draw the clock without invoking schematic knowledge of Roman numerals. Through supporting studies, schema theory was demonstrated in its usefulness for understanding how memory is categorized, how inferences are made, how stories are interpreted, memory distortions and social cognition.
Schema theory does not show how schemas are required. It is not clear which develops first, the schema to interpret the experiences or vice versa. Schema theory explains how new information is categorised according to existing knowledge. But it does not account for completely new information that cannot link with existing knowledge. Therefore, it does not explain how new information is organised in early life E.
It has contributed largely to our understanding of mental processes. But the theory requires further research and refinements to overcome its limitations and uncover its unclear aspects.
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Anderson and Pichert 1978
Consumer knowledge about a product class influences learning and remembering; processes active at both encoding and retrieval affect the designation of importance and ultimately, the accessibility of information. For the expert, more elaborate schema allows them to use their prior knowledge to more deeply encode information, and to access the information later with a rich network of cues. For the novice, the processes at encoding are less important. It is the processes at retrieval which influence whether or not information is remembered. The processes do not act independently, there is evidence of an interaction between encoding and retrieval processes.
Recovering Forgotten Information: a Study in Consumer Expertise
Post a Comment. Germany bans meetings of more than two people. Anderson and Pichert Aim: To investigate if schema processing influences both encoding and retrieval.