Apicius, De Re Coquinaria is a selection of Roman recipes , probably compiled in the late 4th or early 5th century AD and written in a language closer to popular Latin than to Classical Latin. The name " Apicius " had long been associated with excessively refined love of food, from the habits of an early bearer of the name, Marcus Gavius Apicius , a Roman gourmet and lover of refined luxury who lived sometime in the 1st century AD. He is sometimes erroneously asserted to be the author of the book that is attributed to him. The De Re Coquinaria is a text for the kitchen. While the Fulda manuscript is composed of text only though, interestingly enough, of seven different hands , the Vatican Apicius is an illuminated manuscript probably made for a high ranked person of the time.

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Hill, The text is in the public domain. This text has not yet been proofread. If you find a mistake though, please let me know! X , Fresh Ham and Chap.

Sows were slaughtered before they had a litter, or were spayed for the purpose of obtaining the sterile womb. Crush pepper, lovage, with broth, pure wine, adding raisin wine to taste, thicken the sauce with roux and pour it over the roast. Enjoy this with a brine sauce and mustard. Ficatum , iecur suillum. Thayer's Note: Ficatum is the origin of the words for liver in several Romance languages: Italian fegato , Spanish higado , French foie.

According to the invention of Marcus Apicius, pigs were starved, and the hungry pigs were crammed with dry figs and then suddenly given all the mead they wanted to drink. The violent expansion of the figs in the stomachs, or the fermentation caused acute indigestion which killed the pigs.

The livers were very much enlarged, similar to the cramming of geese for the sake of obtaining abnormally large livers. This latter method prevailed in the Strassburg District until recently when it was prohibited by law. Thayer's Note: foie gras is still produced by cramming geese. I've been unable so far to confirm that the cramming of either geese or pigs was prohibited at any time in "the Strassburg District" — i.

If you have solid information, drop me a line, of course! Stick figs into the liver by making apertures with the knife or with a needle. It is by no means clear that the liver is meant. The result was delicious, however, as the flavor of the figs and of the liver were complementary. Ofellae ; apparently the old Roman "Hamburger Steak.

Scrape it as thin as a skin and shape it. Crush pepper, lovage, cumin, carraway, silphium, one laurel berry, moistened with broth; in a square dish place the meat balls and the spices where they remain in pickling for two or three days, covered crosswise with twigs. Then place them in the oven to be roasted , when done take the finished meat balls out.

Crush pepper, lovage, with the broth, add a little raisin wine to sweeten. Cook it, thicken with roux, immerse the balls in the sauce and serve.

Thayer's Note: The site of ruins only a little less spectacular than Pompeii's, far less hot and crowded, and a short hour's commuter train ride from downtown Rome. When done, retire, allow to drip and dry on the gridiron but so that the meat does not harden.

Crush pepper, lovage, rush, 1 cumin, adding broth and raisin wine to taste. Place the roulades with this sauce together in a sauce pan ; finish by braising. When done, retire the roulades and dry them. Serve without the gravy sprinkled with pepper. If too fat remove the outer skin. Dumplings; but this formula appears to deal with boneless pork chops, pork roulades or " filets mignons. When the cutlets are done marinated the pickle is placed on the fire and boiled; the cutlets are put back into this gravy and are finished with crushed pepper, spices, honey, broth, and roux.

When this is done serve the cutlets without the broth and oil, sprinkled with pepper. Aprugineo ; list Ofellae Aprugneae , i. Next prepare the following: one whole 2 glass broth, a glass of water, a glass of vinegar and a glass of oil, properly mixed; put this in an earthen baking dish , immerse meat pieces, finish on the fire and serve.

Summi ; list sumis , i. Another way: 2 the cutlets previously salt and pickled in a broth of cumin, are properly fried. To fry in water is not possible. V Choice Roasts Assaturae 1 1 Tor. De assaturae exquisitae apparatu. Roasting in the oven is not as desirable as roasting on the spit, universally practised during the middle ages.

The spit seems to have been unknown to the Romans. It is seldom used today, although we have improved it by turning it with electrical machinery. Thayer's Note: To me, this looks less like a sauce and more like a marinade, or even a rub, slightly moistened to make it stick. Heat and bind with roux. Pour this over the roast that is medium done, with salt; sprinkle with pepper and serve.

The neck piece itself, if you like, is also roasted with spices and the hot gravy is simply poured over at the moment of serving. Perhaps a typographical error for succum. Most of the ingredients are found in the Worcestershire sauce. Hence Cupedinarius Terent. It is inconceivable how this sauce can be white in color, but, as a condiment and if taken in small quantity, it has our full approval. The sporadic discoveries of such very subtle and refined methods cf.

They simply used a greater variety of flavors and aromas than we do today, but there is no proof that spices were used excessively. The great variety of flavors at the disposal of the ancients speaks well for the refinement of the olfactory sense and the desire to bring variety into their fare. Stir well with satury and leeks 2 and tie with roux.

Crush pepper, lovage, silphium, anise, ginger, a little rue; fill the paunch with it, not too much, though, leaving plenty of room for expansion lest it bursts while being cooked. Put it in a pot with boiling water, retire and prick with a needle so that it does not burst.

When half done, take it out and hang it into the smoke to take on color; now boil it over again and finish it leisurely. Next take the broth, some pure wine and a little oil, open the paunch with a small knife. Sprinkle with the broth and lovage; place the pig near the fire to heat it, turn it around in bran or bread crumbs immerse in sprinkle with brine and finish the outer crust to a golden brown.

Lister has this formula divided into two; Danneil and Schuch make three different formulas out of it. The tenderloins are then rolled up to be roasted; tie together, wrap in caul, parboil in oil 2 and broth, and then roast in the oven or broil on the gridiron.

Thereupon make dough crumbs of flour and oil 1 lay the dough over or around the ham, stud the top with the pieces of the skin so that they will be baked with the dough bake slowly and when done, retire from the oven and serve.

The figs were retired from the sauce pan long before the meat was done and they were served around the ham as a garnish. At any consequence we partook of a grand dish that no inmate of Olympus would have sneezed at. In Pompeii an inn-keeper had written the following on the wall of his establishment: Ubi perna cocta est si convivae apponitur non gustat pernam linguit ollam aut caccabum.

When we first beheld this message we took the inn-keeper for a humorist and a clever advertiser; but now we are convinced that he was in earnest when he said that his guests would lick the sauce pan in which his hams were cooked. When done skin, glaze the surface with a fire shovel full of glowing coals, spread honey over it, or, what's better: put it in the oven covered with honey.

When it has a nice color, put in a sauce pan raisin wine, pepper, a bunch of rue and pure wine to taste. When this sauce is done, pour half of it over the ham and in the other half soak specially made ginger bread 3 The remnant of the sauce after most of it is thoroughly soaked into the bread, add to the ham.

Properly perhaps, Petasonem ex mustaceis ; cf. Plainly, we are dealing here with fresh, uncured ham. He has the three foregoing formulae thrown into one.

Stew the liver in wine sauce, sprinkle with pepper and serve. Iecinera haedina. The soaking of livers in milk is quite common; it removes the offensive taste of the gall. The fact that here attention is drawn to home-made sweet dishes may clear up the absence of regular baking and dessert formulae in Apicius.

The trade of the Dulciarius was so highly developed at that time that the professional bakers and confectioners supplied the entire home market with their wares, making it convenient and unprofitable for the domestic cook to compete with their organized business, a condition which largely exists in our modern highly civilized centers of population today.

When saturated place in the oven to heat but not to dry out; when thoroughly hot retire from oven, pour over some honey, stipple the fruit so that the honey may penetrate, sprinkle with pepper 2 and serve. Aphros is not identified. Perhaps the term stood for Apricots Old English Aphricocks or some other African fruit or plant; Lister's celery is to be rejected on gastronomical grounds. The above treatment would correspond to that which is given apricots and peaches today.

They are peeled, immersed in cream and sweetened with sugar. Apicius' heating of the fruit in milk is new to us; it sounds good, for it has a tendency to parboil any hard fruit, make it more digestible and reduce the fluid to a creamy consistency.

Thayer's Note: This looks like a recipe for stewed or candied angelica to me; angelica of course belongs to the celery family, and candied angelica, far from being gastronomically unsuitable, is a frequent ingredient in the great classic French desserts.

Piperato mittis. Piperatum is a dish prepared with pepper, any spicy dish; the term may here be applied to the bowl in which the porridge is served. Dulcia piperata mittis. Thereupon spread it out on a pan and when cool cut it into handy pieces like small cookies. Fry these in the best oil, take them out, dip into hot honey, sprinkle with pepper 2 and serve. When congealed sprinkle with pepper and serve. It must be borne in mind, however, that the ancient definition of "custard" is "egg cheese," probably because of the similarity in appearance and texture.

Place it in the oven to let it rise and when one side is done, turn it out into a service platter fold it pour over honey, sprinkle with pepper 3 and serve. Mel caseum ; Tor.

Served raw sliced, with the above dressing, or cooked. The dressing make thus: take thyme, flea-bane, pepper, origany, honey, vinegar, reduced wine, date wine, if you like 2 broth and a little oil. Sprinkle with pepper and serve.


Apicio De Re Coquinaria Facsimile

Hill, The text is in the public domain. This text has not yet been proofread. If you find a mistake though, please let me know! X , Fresh Ham and Chap.



He is the supposed author of the book De re coquinaria, which is a source about cuisine in the Roman world. He lived during the reigns of the emperors Augustus and Tiberius. Heir of a great fortune, his passion for gastronomy ended with his capital, but what lives on in history is his wisdom and passion for good food and food research. At the foundaon of his best recipes, he always found a place for olive oil or green olives, of which he always spoke of their great benefits. Above all, Apicio was known for his eccentricies and a huge personal fortune that he squandered in his eagerness to obtain the most refined foods, elaborated in complicated recipes. Some were aributed to him, like the foie gras obtained from the liver of geese fed with figs. His excessive Epicureanism earned him the anpathy of contemporary Stoics such as Seneca and Pliny the Elder.

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