The emergence of a number of new art forms in the course of the development and spreading of digital media — e. The variety of new forms makes it difficult to give an overall view, let alone that a substantial definition of these new phenomenons in art studies would be even more complicated, since it remains unclear what distinguishes them from former art forms. Among the things, that are listed as characteristics of interactivity in computer-mediated environments Cf. Responsivity changes the activity of beholding in the sense that the receiver is understood as a co-author, but not suprisingly there are some doubts about this author-function. It excludes the producer, because his integration would turn the art work into a technically mediated form of interaction. Therefore, these art forms can be seen in one line with the development of the techniques of the observer which the art historian Jonathan Crary has examined for the 19th century in physiology, art, and popular culture Cf.

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The Art Story. Ways to support us. Summary of Michael Fried Michael Fried is one the most established and reputable art critics and historians alive today. His approach to criticism is closely linked with that of his mentor, the late Clement Greenberg, who Fried first encountered while an undergraduate at Princeton.

Another of Fried's notable contributions was his staunch opposition to what he observed as the lack of differentiation between the work of art itself and the experience of viewing it, a phenomenon he described as "theatricality. Barnett Newman. Morris Louis. Robert Rauschenberg.

Jasper Johns. Charles Baudelaire. Karl Marx. Clement Greenberg. Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Action Painting. Abstract Expressionism. Frank Stella.

Kenneth Noland. Jules Olitski. Anthony Caro. Rosalind Krauss. Barbara Rose. Post-Painterly Abstraction. Pop Art. Color Field Painting. Combine painting. The Art Story Foundation continues to improve the content on this website. Please stay tuned as we continue to update existing pages and build new ones. Thank you for your patronage! Cavanaugh and Dale Keiger.

A tendency among New York painters of the late s and s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraces the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the post-war mood of anxiety and trauma.

ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism Page. Formalism is an approach to interpreting art that emphasises qualities of form - color, line, shape, texture and so forth. Formalists generally argue that these are at the heart of art's value. The belief that form can be detached from content, or subject matter, goes back to antiquity, but it has been particularly important in shaping accounts of modern and abstract art.

In recent decades formalism has met with resistance, and a range of other approaches, including social and psychoanalytic, have gained popularity. ArtStory: Formalism Page. Manet's paintings are considered among the first works of art in the modern era, due to his rough painting style and absence of idealism in his figures. Manet was a close friend of and major influence on younger artists who founded Impressionism such as Monet, Degas and Renoir.

Barnett Newman was an Abstract Expressonist painter in New York who painted large-scale fields of solid color, interrupted by vertical lines or "zips. ArtStory: Barnett Newman Page.

Morris Louis was an American painter and an original member of the so-called Washington Color School. Along with Noland, Frankenthaler and others, Louis pioneered the color-field school of painting, using a technique of soaking heavy oil paints into unprimed canvases. Louis's paintings in part inspired his friend Clement Greenberg to dub the second-generation Abstract Expressionism artists Post-painterly abstraction. ArtStory: Morris Louis Page. Robert Rauschenberg, a key figure in early Pop Art, admired the textural quality of Abstract Expressionism but scorned its emotional pathos.

His famous "Combines" are part sculpture, part painting, and part installation. ArtStory: Robert Rauschenberg Page. Jasper Johns is an American artist who rose to prominence in the late s for his multi-media constructions, dubbed by critics as Neo-Dada. Johns' work, including his world-famous targets and American flags series, were important predecessors to Pop art.

ArtStory: Jasper Johns Page. Charles Pierre Baudelaire was a French poet and art critic during the midth century. His poetry depicted the harsh realities of urban poverty in 19th-century Paris, and often focused on the flanuer one who wanders the city to experience it. The Baudelarian idea of the flaneur is a lasting legacy of the modern era.

Further Information. Karl Marx was a German philosopher, historian, economist and revolutionary who along with Frederick Engels founded modern Communism. Although Marx's belief that socialism would one day replace capitalism did not come true, he is considered one of the modern era's most influential thinkers. Clement Greenberg was one the leading American art critics during the 20th century.

Best known as the ideological counterpart to Harold Rosenberg, Greenberg was a formalist who coined the terms "American-type painting" and 'Post-painterly abstraction. ArtStory: Clement Greenberg Page. Maurice Merleau-Ponty was a 20th-century French phenomenological philosopher. Highly influenced by the writings and theories and Marx, Heidegger and Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty examined the structures of human consciousness, and how things such as art, literature and the sciences affect these structures.

Essentially an existentialist, Merleau-Ponty believed the human body, consciousness and the world around us were all intertwined entities. A movement in painting that first surfaced in France in the s, it sought new ways to describe effects of light and movement, often using rich colors.

The Impressionists were drawn to modern life and often painted the city, but they also captured landscapes and scenes of middle-class leisure-taking in the suburbs. ArtStory: Impressionism Page. Post-Impressionism refers to a number of styles that emerged in reaction to Impressionism in the s.

The movement encompassed Symbolism and Neo-Impressionism before ceding to Fauvism around Its artists turned away from effects of light and atmosphere to explore new avenues such as color theory and personal feeling, often using colors and forms in intense and expressive ways.

ArtStory: Post-Impressionism Page. Many German Expressionists used vivid colors and abstracted forms to create spiritually or psychologically intense works, while others focused on depictions of war, alienation, and the modern city. ArtStory: Expressionism Page. Action Painting was a term coined by art critic Harold Rosenberg to refer to the gestural mode of Abstract Expressionism, characterized by drips, flung paint, and rapid, spontaneous strokes.

In this view the painting is a record of the artist's activities over time. ArtStory: Action Painting Page. Frank Stella is an American artist whose geometric paintings and shaped canvases underscore the idea of the painting as object.

A major influence on Minimalism, his iconic works include nested black and white stripes and concentric, angular half-circles in bright colors.

ArtStory: Frank Stella Page. Kenneth Noland was an American painter who helped pioneer the Color Field movement in the s. His most famous works consist of circular ripples of paint poured directly onto the canvas. ArtStory: Kenneth Noland Page. Jules Olitski was a Russian-born American painter and key figure in the mid-century movements of color-field painting and Post-painterly abstraction. Olitski is most famous for his innovation of painting using multiple spray guns, applied to unprimed and unstretched canvases.

ArtStory: Jules Olitski Page. Sir Anthony Alfred Caro is an English abstract sculptor whose work famously incorporates found industrial objects, or what has been called "junk sculpture. Caro showed at the Primary Structures exhibition at the Jewish Museum. His work has also been categorized as Minimalist and Conceptual. Rosalind Krauss is an American art critic and philosopher.

Originally a disciple of formalist critic Clement Greenberg, Krauss later founded the radicalist journal October, and became an important proponent of postmodern art theory. ArtStory: Rosalind Krauss Page. Currently, no information is available for this item on this beta version of the site. Please visit this page in the future as we are expanding quickly. Barbara Rose is an American art historian.

Post-painterly abstraction was a term developed by critic Clement Greenberg in to describe a diverse range of abstract painters who rejected the gestural styles of the Abstract Expressionists and favored instead what he called "openness or clarity. Some employed geometric form, others veils of stained color. British artists of the s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.

ArtStory: Pop Art Page.


Summary of Michael Fried

It seeks to declare and occupy a position—one which can be formulated in words, and in fact has been formulated by some of its leading practitioners. If this distinguishes it from modernist painting and sculpture on the one hand, it also marks an important difference between Minimal Art—or, as I prefer to call it, literalist art—and Pop or Op Art on the other. From its inception, literalist art has amounted to something more than an episode in the history of taste. It belongs rather to the history—almost the natural history—of sensibility; and it is not an isolated episode but the expression of a general and pervasive condition. Its seriousness is vouched for by the fact that it is in relation both to modernist painting and modernist sculpture that literalist art defines or locates the position it aspires to occupy.


Michael Fried

The Art Story. Ways to support us. Summary of Michael Fried Michael Fried is one the most established and reputable art critics and historians alive today. His approach to criticism is closely linked with that of his mentor, the late Clement Greenberg, who Fried first encountered while an undergraduate at Princeton. Another of Fried's notable contributions was his staunch opposition to what he observed as the lack of differentiation between the work of art itself and the experience of viewing it, a phenomenon he described as "theatricality. Barnett Newman.


Fried's contribution to art historical discourse involved the debate over the origins and development of modernism. Along with Fried, this debate's interlocutors include other theorists and critics such as Clement Greenberg , T. Clark , and Rosalind Krauss. Since the early s, he has also been close to philosopher Stanley Cavell.

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