The Paul Street Boys spend their free time at the grund , an empty lot that they regard as their "Fatherland". Although the Paul Street Boys win the war, and little Nemecsek repeatedly demonstrates that his bravery and loyalty surpasses his size, the book ends in tragedy. Very popular in Hungary, it is considered as a classic book, and it is also one of the most famous Hungarian novels outside the country. It has been translated into many languages, and in several countries, it is a mandatory or recommended reading in schools. The first English translation was made by Louis Rittenberg and published in ,  and later revised by George Szirtes for a re-release in
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Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. Variation of teeth has been an enduring interest to the clinical practitioner and the laboratory scientist.
No two teeth are alike. The day-to-day variation of teeth that we see is the norm. It is the odd, peculiar, and strange group of teeth to which we focus our attention here. They are called anomalies. Some texts describe them as developmental disturbances, recognizing that they are best understood from a developmental viewpoint. They are the more extreme variations from the norm.
Reproduced below is the life cycle of the tooth, taken from the classic text by Schour and Massler used by a generation of dental students. Some variations, such as the shovel-shaped incisor or the Carabelli trait are curiosities in clinical practice, but are very useful to the dental anthropologist in tracing population movements. This is recognized in the phrase "where armies go, genes flow". Shoveling of the incisor is common amongst the Chinese, Japanese, Mongolians, and Eskimo. The Carabelli trait is most common amongst European peoples.
Other variations, such as agenesis are useful for analysis at the biochemical and molecular level in understanding the fundamental chemistry involved in tooth formation. Very few heritable dental traits are truly Mendelian although some 49 traits, many restricted to single families, are recognized. Most dental variations are polygenic, that is controlled by several genes. With these, we often speak of the degree of expression or penetrance.
Disturbances in Size. Generalized microdontia is a rare condition associated with uncommon conditions such as pituitary dwarfism. More often, microdontia is limited to just one or two teeth.
Peg-shaped incisors tend to be familial. Occasionally, an upper lateral incisor is missing on one side, pegshaped on the other side. Generalized macrodontia is rare, seen infrequently in conditions such as pituitary gigantism.
It can be localized involving just one or a few teeth. Macrodontia is much less common than microdontia. You may occasionally see the term 'megadontia' used for this condition. Disturbances in Number. Read that sentence again, so you can contrast anodontia with edentulous, the clinical absence of teeth. Edentulous means the clinical absence of teeth. Anodontia means the failure of teeth to form at all.
In true or complete anodontia, all teeth fail to develop. When this does occur, it is usually part of a more generalized disorder ectodermal dysplasia, an inherited defect of all ectodermally derived structures.
It is much more common than complete anodontia. Third molars, lower second premolars, and upper lateral incisors in that order are the most common congenitally absent teeth. Note this very well: congenital absence of a deciduous tooth is not common. When it does occur, it is most often the upper lateral incisor that is absent.
When a deciduous tooth is absent, its permanent successor is usually missing also. This is a note on terminology: Terms such as oligodontia or hypodontia are occasionally used in British journals to describe the condition of partial anodontia. These terms don't appear in American dictionaries; therefore, the terms are not always consistent in usage if they appear in journals from our country.
You are safe just to know that they mean 'a few teeth are missing. Their presence in the deciduous dentition is quite rare. Two terms occasionally used to describe this condition of having extra teeth are polydontia or hyperdontia. The most common of all supernumerary teeth is the mesiodens which is a supernumerary that forms in the midline between and lingual to the roots of the maxillary central incisors. Most supernumerary teeth do not erupt; they often are unknown until detected on X-ray films.
Fourth molars, themselves a rare occurrence are infrequently called 'paramolars' or 'distomolars. Disturbances in Eruption.
A natal tooth seen at birth may be an aberrant 'tooth' nodule, or it may actually be a deciduous incisor that has erupted early. The etiology is unknown. For one or a few teeth, surgical exposure and--if needed--orthodontic guidance can bring the tooth into its proper place.
X-ray films are useful in evaluating early or late eruption of teeth. Usually, some barrier to eruption will be seen on the X-ray film. A seldom used term for unerupted teeth is embedded teeth.
The third molars and maxillary canine are the most frequently impacted teeth, followed by premolars and supernumerary teeth.
An iatrogenic disease or condition is one that is 'doctor-caused'. If a second molar is inadvertently impacted by a poorly placed molar band as shown in the diagram, it is an iatrogenic condition. These things happen to the best of us. We need to make these occurrences as few as possible, and to be on the lookout for them when they do occur. The bend it located at the junction between the crown and the root.
The bend can be as much as 90 degrees. Dilaceration usually results from trauma to the unfinished tooth when development is in progress. Such a tooth in the old literature is sometimes called a 'hawk billed tooth'. Usually the bend is less than 90 degrees. It may be a result of trauma to the developing tooth.
Carefully contrast and compare the definitions for flexion and dilacertaion. Taurodont teeth are usually molars. They have an abnormally long pulpal chamber and shortened roots. The pulp chamber has no constriction near the CEJ as do normal teeth. Clinically these teeth appear normal. Taurodontism was relatively common amongst the European Neandertals. It is also found on occasion in people living today.
The implication of its appearance in modern people is unknown. No treatment of the condition is necessary apart from due prudence when doing root canal therapy. It is an uncommon developmental abnormality that primarily affects maxillary lateral incisors.
It is in fact a deeply invaginated lingual pit with an important clinical implication: these are very susceptible to caries and they ought to be restored promptly. Left unattended, these teeth tend to decay very rapidly. Modern literature will often refer this condition as dens invaginatus. This is a term you should know. We review here the common types. These conditions are known collectively as the Carabelli trait.
Clinically it is worth checking out during a dental exam: it is frequently a site of early dental caries. It is a heritable trait most commonly seen in European populations. The Carabelli trait is best understood as a variation, not an anomaly. A talon cusp appears as a projection from the cingulum of incisor teeth. These can interfere with occlusion; however, grinding them down is a hazardous endeavor. Talon cusps often contain a prominent pulp horn which is very susceptible to exposure in the younger patient.
It forms a tubercle called a 'dens evaginatus'. Do not confused this with the early condition, dens invaginitus mentioned above. Dens evaginitus can also contain a pulp horn as does the talon cusp mentioned earlier. Fortunately, these conditions are infrequent. It is a bulge on the buccal cusp that is only found in Native American Indians, with highest frequencies of occurence in Arizona. The name is not a dental term; it comes from a regional linguistic division of Native American Indian language groups.
Certain teeth exhibit a variation in the number of roots. Incidentally, most root variation is in the distal third of the root. Sometimes roots can be blunted or shortened. It tends to occur without apparent cause.
On occasion, root resorption and root blunting can be unfortunate consequence of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A few patients are very susceptible to this condition, and the practitioner's heart sinks when it is found--without warning--on the post treatment X-ray films.
Below is a brief discussion of extra or fused roots. Upper first premolars usually have two roots; however, one root is occasionally found in these teeth.
Variation in Tooth Morphology Anatomy.pdf
The Paul Street Boys