After over 60 years of continuous growth, the pulp and paper. It is important to note, however, that when a plant is classified as incipiently domesticated it does not mean that it will inevitably achieve the status of a crop with selection of varieties over time. Farmer with uvilla Pourouma cecropiifolia Figure Arqueoloyia in Plant Pathology For the purposes of the present discussion, a relatively simple framework is adopted: Glaser, Arqueolotia of Halle, pers. The rise and fall of the Amazon chiefdoms.

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Douglas H. Ubelaker 1. Cassandra M. DeGaglia 1. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. Comparative skeletal and dental data from periods spanning pre- and post-contact Ecuador reveal trends in the health of populations through time and across geographic regions.

The sample is comprised of 79 individuals, of all ages, from 57 rasgos features. Although fragmentary, the recovered remains provide information about the demographic composition of this coastal population as well as the prevalence of trauma and disease. The new data are presented for comparison alongside previously reported statistics from early Ecuador.

In recent decades, biological analysis of human remains recovered from archeological contexts in Ecuador have yielded a wealth of information regarding health, disease, quality of life, and other variables Ubelaker ; Ubelaker and Newson Samples examined range temporally from the preceramic site of Las Vegas on the southern coast Ubelaker a to historic churches Ubelaker a and other institutions Ubelaker and Rousseau in the highland city of Quito Ubelaker Although most publications focus on samples from southern coastal sites Ubelaker a , b , , data are also available from the northern coast Ubelaker c , and highlands Ubelaker b , d , a , b , ; Ubelaker et al.

Analysis reveals some geographical variation but mostly suggests a gradual, broad temporal increase in morbidity and mortality Ubelaker a. Prior to European contact, the negative health trend seems to stem from problems of sanitation and nutrition relating to horticulture and population sedentism Ubelaker Following European contact, these problems were exacerbated by the arrival of new European based diseases and social upheaval Ubelaker b , , Although the array of sites and samples analyzed present data on the full range of the Ecuadorean past, little has been published regarding the Guangala period of the Ecuadorean coast.

This sample of 30 individuals dates from about BP and presents evidence of porotic hyperostosis likely related to hookworm infestation Ubelaker b. The current report provides new perspectives from the analysis of a Late Guangala sample from coastal Ecuador. In addition to the bioarchaeological information cited above, the published record also presents considerable archeological information from coastal Ecuador e.

Piperno and Stothert ; Stothert , ; Stothert et al. These studies indicate that by the time of the Guangala period in coastal Ecuador, the populations had shifted subsistence toward agricultural products with increasing sedentism. In combination, the skeletal biology and archeological data suggest that morbidity and mortality likely were increasing due to the enhanced opportunity for infectious disease related to sedentism and increased community size.

The Torre Marina sample offers an opportunity to examine the health effects of community living in the Guangala period of coastal Ecuador. In July and August , the first author conducted analysis of human remains recovered from archeological excavations at the Torre Marina site, coastal Ecuador. The excavation was initiated due to an imminent construction project in the area. The site is located within the city of La Libertad, coastal Ecuador Figure 1. The skeletal analysis was conducted at the invitation of the site archaeologists and Dr.

Karen Stothert, who maintains an interest in archaeological developments in the area. Analysis was conducted at Dr. Stothert worked closely with the first author during the analysis, especially in the unpacking, cleaning, washing, drying, photographing, and repackaging of the remains. References to the bioarchaeological features use the language that was associated with each set of remains provided by archaeologists.

Prior to the analysis, the remains were washed with water using soft brushes. Drying was conducted in the shade to avoid damage due to sun exposure. All methods relating to the estimation of age at death and sex follow the recommendations and data provided by Buikstra and Ubelaker and Ubelaker Calculations from Ubelaker were used to construct a life table Table 1 for the population.

The decimal values reported in column Dx of the life table reflect the number of deaths per age interval, including the proportional assignment of individuals whose ages could only be estimated generally Ubelaker For details on methods on life table construction, see Ubelaker Dental observations included the number of teeth present, those absent antemortem, the presence of alveolar abscesses, carious lesions, enamel hypoplasia, and the presence and extent of calculus deposits Ubelaker and Freire When present, calculus deposits were noted as being small, medium, or large.

Additionally, dental attrition was used in conjunction with skeletal indicators to estimate age at death for individuals in the sample. The extent of dental attrition can be used to estimate age by determining the rate of attrition in the individual through examination of the relative amount of occlusal wear on each of the molars Ubelaker The following presents a detailed account of the skeletal analysis, followed by interpretive summaries.

Detailed feature analysis revealed that at least 79 individuals were present in the 57 archeologically- designated rasgos Table 2. Of these, 24 Of the 55 adults in the sample, sex could be estimated reliably for only 32, 16 males and 16 females. Human remains were generally in a very fragmentary condition which complicated determination of various aspects of a biological profile for some individuals. The life table Table 2 reveals a life expectancy at birth of about 29 years. Life expectancy at age 15 was only about 19 years, with few individuals living beyond the age of Note however, that ages of death of the elderly are difficult to estimate from fragmentary remains.

A total of teeth both in place in alveolar bone and loose were recorded from the sample, permanent teeth and 43 deciduous. Of the permanent teeth recovered, were associated with male remains, were associated with female remains, and 39 were associated with remains of indeterminate sex.

Data for deciduous teeth Table 3 are presented separately from those of permanent teeth Table 4. No examples of abnormal antemortem tooth loss were noted on immature remains. Carious lesions and alveolar abscesses were also absent in association with deciduous dentition.

Many deciduous teeth displayed calculus deposits, evenly distributed on the buccal and lingual surfaces. Detailed data on conditions of permanent teeth are presented in Table 4. Of the permanent teeth present, 40 Of the carious teeth, nine were incisors representing 9. Calculus deposits were present on most teeth, equally distributed between the buccal and lingual surfaces. Most calculus deposits were of only slight amount. Table 4 also reveals the extent of teeth absent antemortem.

Evidence of antemortem loss consisted of tooth absence accompanied by remodeling of the bony alveolus. Of all observations of teeth present or absent, 66 Of the teeth absent antemortem, six were incisors, two were canines, 21 were premolars, and 37 were molars.

Seventeen alveolar abscesses were noted These abscesses were present primarily in posterior teeth premolars and molars. One abscess was associated with an incisor, zero were found associated with canines, seven were found in association with premolars, and nine were found in association with molars.

Evidence of bone pathology consisted primarily of healed trauma and periosteal reactive bone. Specific examples are as follows:.

Field notes relating to this feature refer to a primary adult burial in a supine position with east-west orientation. Three spindle whorls were located on the right side of the skeleton.

Shark teeth and small red shell beads were present on the left side. Most major elements of the skeleton are present. Female sex is suggested by a femoral head maximum diameter of 39 mm and general morphological features, including an extremely prominent preauricular sulcus on both the left and right ilia.

Although fragmentary, considerable reconstruction of skeletal elements was possible for both clavicles, both ulnae, both radii, both femora, the left humerus, and both fibulae diaphyses. Diaphyses of both fibulae reveal extensive well-remodeled bone and abnormal, pathological morphology at what appear to be the distal segment ends.

The reconstructed segments measure mm and mm. Both segments show abnormal morphology and were originally longer as suggested by postmortem breaks on the non-pathological ends.

The bones appear porous and light in weight suggesting an osteoporotic condition. The most likely interpretation of the missing distal ends accompanied by osteoporosis and well-remodeled bone at the ends of the segments is antemortem amputation.

The evidence suggests antemortem amputation of both lower limbs in the area of the distal fibulae slightly above the ankle area. The coastal location of the site and the presence of shark teeth associated with the burial suggest that antemortem shark injury should be considered.

Elements of both arms, both legs, the axial skeleton, pelvis, and the hands and feet of the skeleton are represented. A narrow sciatic notch on the left innominate, lack of a preauricular sulcus, and a femoral head diameter of 49 mm indicate male sex. An age at death between 25 - 30 years is suggested by the extent of dental attrition. Bone pathology consists of well-remodeled reactive bone on both fibulae diaphyses and the left tibia diaphysis, concentrated on the distal halves of the bones.

Both first metatarsals and associated proximal foot phalanges display alterations associated with hyperdorsiflexion of the toe, probably resulting from habitual kneeling. The left distal humerus displays extensive arthritic alteration likely associated with antemortem trauma. In addition, the left third metatarsal and one proximal foot phalanx present extensive alterations associated with hyperdorsiflexion of the toes probably resulting from a habitual kneeling posture.

Alterations relating to hyperdorsiflexion of the toes probably resulting from a habitual kneeling posture are present on the first left metatarsal. One proximal and one middle hand phalanx are fused together with the middle phalanx displaced toward the posterior. The alteration is well-remodeled and likely results from trauma. Examples of vertebral osteophytosis and other age- related alterations were present but not listed individually above. No examples of porotic hyperostosis or cribra orbitalia were present.

The fragmentary nature of the remains precluded accurate estimates of living stature. Three adult females in the Torre Marina sample presented alterations on the metatarsals and proximal foot phalanges suggesting a habitual kneeling posture. A similar interpretation seems likely with the foot bone alterations discovered in the Torre Marina sample. The new data revealed in the Torre Marina sample analysis can best be interpreted in the context of previously published comparative data on health and demography from Ecuador.

Table 5 presents the chronological sequence of published large skeletal samples from Ecuador including the Torre Marina population.



Douglas H. Ubelaker 1. Cassandra M. DeGaglia 1.


After over 60 years of continuous growth, the pulp and paper. In all sites we visited, we observed both active raised fields and others that were in fallow or abandoned. Raised-field agriculture Figure 8 is part of a production system comprising several complementary activities, conducted phlp different parts of the landscape, and its importance differs among villages. Evidence from phytoliths and from carbon stable isotope composition in soil profiles indicates that before these mounds were built, the area was covered with relatively homogeneous marshland vegetation with relatively flat topography McKey et al. Energetic efficiency and political expediency in Titicaca Basin raised field agriculture.


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