This report has been peer and administratively reviewed and has been approved for publication as an EPA document. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use of a specific product. Test Organism Characteristics 21 Table
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This report has been peer and administratively reviewed and has been approved for publication as an EPA document. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use of a specific product. Test Organism Characteristics 21 Table Laboratories for Each Sample Type 39 Table Prediction Error Statistics 92 Table Waste Management Measurements and Frequency Table Waste Quantities Table Waste Generation Summary Table Wastewater Sampling Results Table Worksheets from Cost Analysis Workbook Table Numbers of Team Entries Table Sampling and Analysis Costs Table Laboratory Analytical Costs with 1.
Waste Management Scenarios Table Waste Management Costs Table Decon Line Process 19 Figure Zone Locations 25 Figure Ambient Air Monitoring Locations 70 Figure Temperature and RH of Location 2 72 Figure Recoveries during Round 1 Pre-decon Sampling 75 Figure Recoveries during Round 2 Pre-decon Sampling 82 Figure Pre-decon Sampling Locations 91 Figure Post-decon Sampling Locations 91 Figure Waste Management Concept Figure Plastic Trough for Waste Immersion Figure Facility Decon Costs Figure Breakdown of Waste Management Costs Figure Inch in.
This project could not have been successfully accomplished without the collective commitment and contributions of all involved. Our sincerest thanks go to Fort A. Hill FAPH personnel for hosting this project. The authors especially appreciate the contributions of the individuals listed below.
The study venue is located at Fort A. The work involved all aspects of remediation of a subway system tunnel and platform except for rolling stock, maintenance yards, and related facilities contaminated with a biological surrogate for Ba, including pre-decon and post-decon verification sampling and waste management.
The primary OTD objective was to expand the understanding of the operational effectiveness of decon methods and strategies developed in a laboratory by testing them in an underground transportation facility, from site preparation to waste treatment and disposal.
Both rounds included a decon efficacy assessment, composite sampling, a grimed and non-grimed coupon study, a waste management assessment, and an overall cost analysis of the approaches. During Round 1, a fogging technology was used to fog dilute bleach, and during Round 2, a low-pressure commercial sprayer was used to spray pH amended bleach pAB.
Samples were collected pre- and post-decon for comparison of recovery and assessment of decon efficacy in the tunnel and platform areas as well as in difficult-to-reach areas such as the railroad ballast, and newsstand and food stand kiosks.
The technologies of the two decon methods vary significantly. For Round 1, samples were collected after the release of Bg spores and before decon to determine the mean surface loading.
For Round 2, samples were collected after the release of Bg spores and before decon to determine the mean surface loading. Following decon spraying , decon efficacy assessment samples not including waste and blank samples but including kiosk in situ surfaces and materials were collected after spraying. For the kiosk materials, positive results ranged from 5 to CFU. For both the fogging and spraying decon methods, the majority of positive results were for samples collected from the commercial kiosk area, which contained porous and organic items that are commonly found in subway convenience stores.
As will be elaborated later, the removal of these porous materials for ex situ waste treatment may be the most effective approach for ensuring that materials do not contain residual spores. As for the other positive results in the platform and tunnel, in a real incident, locations yielding positive results would require additional remediation steps.
Therefore, there was not much of a practical difference in decon efficacy between these two decon methods. In addition, no adverse impacts on the facility and its components was observed after both decon methods. Comparison of the composite and discrete sponge stick and vacuum sample results demonstrated that composite sampling can yield representative results for spore detection while reducing the need for sampling labor and supplies, data management, sample shipment, and laboratory analysis.
Since the mock subway system at FAPH was relatively clean compared to a real system, grimed coupons were added to the study area during Rounds 1 and 2 to make the mock subway system more realistic.
Non-grimed coupons also were placed in the study area for comparison to the grimed coupon results. The study was conducted to determine if the presence of grime affects the decon efficacy. Because both decontamination rounds resulted in almost complete kill of viable spores on grimed and non-grimed coupons, no significant difference was observed in spore inactivation caused by the presence of grime on the materials.
Waste management is an integral part of the decon process and must be included as a specific function during pre-incident and response planning.
The need to simulate waste conditions with regards to costs, quantities, logistics, etc. The waste management assessment included the evaluation of waste management procedures through waste sampling, including the potential for in situ waste treatment during facility decon and the potential for ex situ on-site waste treatment using immersion in a pAB solution.
There are several observations and conclusions drawn based on the waste management assessment. One general observation for both decon methods is that removal of porous materials for ex situ waste treatment is a more consistently effective approach for ensuring that waste materials do not contain residual spores. A cost analysis was conducted to estimate the costs resulting from the application of various decontamination technologies. The cost analysis approach assumed that although certain pieces of information derived from the OTD are incident- and site-specific, the information can still be extrapolated to other events.
This information includes costs related to sampling activities, application of decon technologies for the study area and for personnel entering and leaving the test area, and costs related to equipment rentals and consumables.
Where appropriate and possible, adjustments were made during the cost analysis to account for an actual Ba incident. The assessment found that based on cost alone, there is not a significant difference between the two decon methods.
Overall cost largely is driven by sampling and analysis, both in terms of labor costs associated with laboratory analysis as well as the significant contribution of personal protective equipment from the Sampling Teams to the overall waste streams.
The differences in decon method did not significantly affect the total cost. The OTD demonstrated several workable technologies that could be utilized to remediate a subway system after contamination with Ba, and provided information on the cost and magnitude of such a response. Overall, the OTD provided the opportunity to assess the countries current response and remediation capabilities and areas of need for future capability enhancement.
The study venue was located at Fort A. The initial and residual contamination from the Ba spores was difficult to detect, identify, and decontaminate efficiently and quickly. In addition, the affected parties incurred significant costs to decontaminate buildings and equipment suspected of having been contaminated. Government reports and inquiries indicated that Ba sampling and decon methods were not standardized or validated and that biological agent location and characterization efforts were deficient.
Federal agencies made recommendations for standardizing and validating procedures for characterizing biological agent contamination. Further, they made follow-on recommendations for effectively clearing buildings and associated areas by using efficient decon measures. Since , significant advances have been made in addressing responses to Ba releases. These studies have focused on different fumigants EPA. Such studies primarily have been at the bench-scale level using standardized test methods adapted for the study scale.
More recently, some efficacy studies have been conducted on a larger scale to investigate application procedures and the sporicidal properties of decontaminants. For many of the most effective decon chemicals and processes, the impact of decontaminants on materials and equipment also have been studied EPA.
Decon efficacy is directly impacted by the materials present, which in turn directly affects the waste management requirements for a specific site. The interconnections and trade-offs between the decon and waste management options significantly affect site-specific decisions for an effective, yet efficient, remediation effort. More information is necessary to understand these interconnection and trade-offs, and true cost and time impacts can be understood only through larger scale testing and functional exercises.
Several remediation efforts EPA. Although these efforts pertained generally to cross-contamination from working with contaminated imported animal hides, they have broadened the understanding of impacts on decon approaches. For example, the successful implementation of a treatment process for a contaminated wooden shed in Danbury, CT, led to a joint research project between EPA responders and researchers.
The objective of this project was to assess the effectiveness of the train of treatment steps such as vacuuming, spraying with a pH-adjusted [acidified] bleach [pAB] solution, washing, scrubbing, and rinsing individually and in combinations. The goal of these efforts was to understand the most effective combination of steps and situation-specific benefits of decon approaches. The project drew on advances in both general sampling and decon over the past several years.
The study focused on several different decontaminants and decontaminant application methods, including fumigation using chlorine dioxide, surface cleaning using pH-amended bleach spray, and fumigation using vaporous hydrogen peroxide. The BOTE project made significant contributions to a better understanding of the effectiveness of sampling methods and improvement of implementation of decon methods. The purpose of UTR Project is to identify potential solutions to the requirements for rapid characterization, clean-up, and clearance of biological contamination in the physical structures tunnels and stations and rolling stock railcars of an underground transit system.
The DHS developed the UTR Project to improve the capability of transit systems to recover rapidly from a biological release event, thereby addressing a high-priority need expressed by the Transportation Security Administration and local transit systems. UTR OTD planning and execution was based heavily on previous field-scale experience and the expertise obtained from the assessment and implementation of remediation strategies. Army, U. Navy, U. Marine Corps, and U. Air Force as well as training for other federal agencies.
The AWTC also contains a simulated urban area with buildings; a train station and train; and a small subway system including a station, tunnel, platform, tracks and two railcars. This project used the subway station and nearby areas for staging and project operations as shown in Figure
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