As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 18, Washington, D. FORM F The Republic of Chile.

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PubMed Central. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment EQA schemes performed between and Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

Poor hospital indoor air quality IAQ may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater OT , the emergency service ES and the surgical ward SW. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts BCs and fungal load FL were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol 0.

Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings.

Microbiological quality and safety assessment of lettuce production in Brazil. The microbiological quality and safety of lettuce during primary production in Brazil were determined by enumeration of hygiene indicators Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci and detection of enteric pathogens Salmonella and E.

Generic E. Few pathogens were detected: 5 salmonellae and 2 E. Statistical analysis revealed the following environmental and agro-technical risk factors for increased microbial load and pathogen prevalence in lettuce production: high temperature, flooding of lettuce fields, application of contaminated organic fertilizer, irrigation with water of inferior quality and large distances between the field and toilets. All rights reserved. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.

No Salmonella spp. Plate count assays indicated greater prevalence of coliforms and E. The 16S rRNA ion semiconductor sequencing analysis of 24 representative samples revealed that the abundances of Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter spp.

To our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize the diversity of microorganisms of game meats at retail in Japan, together with identification of dominant microbiota. Our data suggest the necessity of bottom-up hygienic assessment in areas of slaughtering and processing facilities to improve microbiological safety.

Data to characterize the microbiological quality of the Nation? Methods and procedures vary with the objectives and practices of the parties collecting data and are continuously being developed or modified. Therefore, it is difficult to provide a nationally consistent picture of the microbial quality of the Nation?

Study objectives and guidelines for a national microbiological monitoring program are outlined in this report, using the framework of the U.

A national program is designed to provide long-term data on the presence of microbiological pathogens and indicators in ground water and surface water to support effective water policy and management. Three major groups of waterborne pathogens affect the public health acceptability of waters in the United States?

Microbiological monitoring in NAWQA would be designed to assess the occurrence, distribution, and trends of pathogenic organisms and indicators in surface waters and ground waters; relate the patterns discerned to factors that help explain them; and improve our understanding of the processes that control microbiological water quality.

Assessment of microbiological quality of retail fresh sushi from selected sources in Norway. Retail fresh sushi is gaining popularity in Europe. This study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of selected samples of fresh sushi with a shelf life of 2 to 3 days offered as complete meals in Norwegian supermarkets.

Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. In a follow-up study, we collected products and raw materials directly from the production facility of one producer and observed a significant decrease P microbiological quality. Microbiological analysis of the sushi ingredients revealed that potentially pathogenic bacteria such as mesophilic Aeromonas spp. The results highlight the importance of high quality ingredients and proper temperature control to ensure stable quality and safety of these food products.

Urban groundwater development was traditionally constrained by concerns about its quality. This study was conducted in the regions of La Ribera Alta and Ribera Baja and La Plana de Requena-Utiel of the Valencian Community Valencia, Spain where population density, demand for drinking water and agricultural activities are high. Groundwater bodies GWBs are regarded as management areas within each territory, and were used to establish protection policies.

This study analyzed eleven GWBs. We used two databases with microbiological measurements from wells over a 7-year period — , risk factors and groundwater information. Wells were grouped according to frequency of microbiological contamination using E. Of all wells, Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda. Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda.

The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination.

Background: From swimming pools, bathers may acquire many potential pathogens or may be affected by the physicochemical characteristics of water used during bathing. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the physicochemical and microbiological quality of public swimming pools located at different hotels and recreation center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method: A cross sectional study was carried out from February to May, Nine hotels and one recreation center which recognized to have public swimming services were included.

A total of 60 swimming pool water samples from 10 swimming pools were collected at deeper, shallow and intake point twice on a weekly basis using a ml sterile bottle containing sodium thiosulphate.

PH, residual chlorine and temperature of samples were recorded at the time of collection. Sample containing bottles were transported in ice box to microbiological laboratory and analyzed on the same day. Standard cultural and biochemical methods were used for isolation and characterization of the main microbial groups.

Total viable count, total coliform count, fecal coliform count and E. Results: Average PH and temperature of swimming pool water samples were 7. Of all analyzed water samples, Moreover, Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece.

Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety.

This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of seawater bathing areas in Greece over year period by chemometric methods.

Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E.

By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A ultraclean , group B clean and group C contaminated. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

Significance for public healthThe microbiological protection of coastal bathing water quality is of great interest for the public health authorities as well as for the economy.

The present study proves that this protection can be achieved by monitoring only two microbiological parameters, E. Data on microbiological quality assessment of rural drinking water supplies in Tiran County, Isfahan province, Iran.

A lack of access to safe drinking water can lead to adverse health effects such as infection, disease, and undesirable aesthetic problems. The current study focused on the investigation of groundwater quality in Tiran's villages Isfahan province, Iran. To determine essential microbiological quality , water samples were collected from 46 randomly-selected water wells during a one-year period. The parameters of pH and chlorine were measured on-site. Microbiological tests including general thermoforms, Escherichia coli , and thermophiles were carried out according to the National Iranian Standard Method Data showed that 1.

The turbidity values for To assess the microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in Western Nigeria and its impact on public health. Cross-sectional microbiological testing. Ninety-two sachet-packaged water samples were analysed for microbiological and metal qualities. Total bacterial and coliform counts were determined, and the presence of Escherichia coli, an important water quality indicator, was tested.

The level of conformity of the water processors with the guidelines of Nigeria's quality regulatory agency was also determined. Varying levels of microbial contamination were recorded in samples from the different sampling locations.

The total bacteria count ranged between 2. The highest coliform count recorded was 1. Faecal coliform E. Lead and manganese were not found in any of the samples. However, iron was detected and the highest iron concentration 0.

The bacteria that were identified from the water samples included E. Many of the water processors did not comply with the guidelines of the quality regulatory agency. Some of the sachet-packaged samples of drinking water were of poor quality. The results indicate a need for Nigeria's quality regulatory agency to take appropriate measures in safeguarding public health. Microbiological quality of natural waters. Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed.

In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.



Use these links to rapidly review the document Table of contents. As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 28, Amendment No. Masisa S. Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter. Translation of the Registrant's name in English. Richard M.


Norma COVENIN 2000-2-99

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