Course development and history. Boylestad, Robert L. Introductory circuit analysis e upplagan. Upper Saddle River, New. INL1 - Written Assignments, 3. The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.
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Thomas Kaiserfeld Dep. Swedish history of technology may not be an oxymoron by definition, but is still a concept laden with such an unconformity as to make it virtually impossible to handle in a stringent manner. In Sweden, research problems connected to technologies of the past are pursued within such a wide range of institutions and intellectual fields that it is a hopeless task indeed to give a full account without missing important themes, topics and projects.
The task is not simplified if one is to include all those historians of technology interested in empirical material that can be denoted Swedish in one way of another. Thus, the following is not to be regarded as a full report, but rather a superficial and personally biased review with ambitions set far too high.
They are an indication of the institutional and intellectual multitude of history of technology in this country. The reasons for these developments over the past decades can only be speculated upon. The intellectual spread can be attributed to traditional interests in history of technology in fields such as archaeology or economic history as well as centrally developed support for interdisciplinary research environments and projects, investments where history of technology are often seen as worthwhile to take on board.
In Swedish compulsory schools, history of technology is to be an important part of courses in technology according to a centrally formulated syllabus. Efforts to change this approach can only be successful by radical transformation of teacher training, a venture still to be launched by Swedish historians of technology.
History of technology in higher education is mostly taught at engineering schools. The courses given are typically survey courses, either structured thematically or chronologically. Apart from courses exclusively devoted to history of technology, problems and literature from the field also arise in a number of courses given in other fields such as history of ideas, economic history, archaeology, history of architecture, history etc.
Especially, themes from history of technology are enrolled in courses in the broader STS-field. Thus, history of technology exists in a larger number of courses in Swedish higher education than can be deduced from course titles only. Despite the number of courses given in history of technology, it is usually hard to attract students to these classes.
Engineering curricula are usually crammed and students are often enough instructed to add other engineering or science topics before turning to humanities and social sciences. Where courses in history of technology are followed by a larger part of the student body, there are usually centrally coordinated efforts to encourage them to study history of technology, for instance at Lund University.
Important instrument to improve teaching potential are good textbooks. Fortunately, there are at least two such educational instruments in Swedish that can be used in higher education: Prof. Both these textbooks have been used thoroughly by Swedish teachers in the history of technology on different levels of the educational system.
Swedish history of technology is decisively research oriented. Research in history of technology is thus pursued at different institutions also reflecting a vast multitude of research themes. In some of these, approaches from history of technology are central.
In other they play a supporting role, although still clearly visible. For instance history of technology is important in many studies on work environment, especially changes in working conditions. In addition, programmes in energy policy have often enough had a component of history of technology. Moreover, history of technology is to some extent related to topics in innovation management as well as research policy. Other important research themes where history of technology often is viewed as an important supporting discipline include history of science and environmental history.
More specifically, history of technology has been of central interest in a rather recently terminated decade-long effort to supply alternative models for the interaction between science, technology and industry, the so-called VTI-programme.
The programme was successfully launched in the late s by one of the founding fathers of history of technology in Sweden, Prof. Svante Lindqvist, who managed it as a joint venture between Department of History of Science and Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology and Department of History of Ideas and Department of Business Studies at Uppsala University resulting in circa 20 PhDs as well as a number of anthologies and related articles.
Systems and networks of different kinds have historically attracted attention from Swedish historians of technology and continue to do so to this day. This is especially valid for energy and transportation systems. Another historically important and presently still very lively theme within Swedish history of technology is research in industrial heritage. A third theme with heavy historical weight that continues to make strong imprints on Swedish history of technology is history of science, some years ago strengthened with a donated professorial chair at Uppsala University.
Other more recently surfacing themes in the history of technology include media technologies as well as the mediation of knowledge in the 19th and 20th centuries. In addition, historical research on the exploitation of the polar areas are expanding in Sweden and includes strong components of history of technology as do indeed research of urban environments, not the least efforts connected to research in sustainability and resilience.
Research in Swedish history of technology is to a large extent financed by soft money provided by research councils, foundations as well as agencies and other authorities. This implies that history of technology is exposed to short-term trends in the Swedish research sector, for example including regionalization and interdisciplinary efforts. Nevertheless, historians of technology have often enough proved not only well adapted to new trends, but also very able in using possibilities to create new opportunities.
Thus, over the past years, important studies of regional systems of innovation and technology have been produced over for instance Dalecarlia and Northern Sweden. In comparison to many other fields in humanities and social sciences, Swedish history of technology has been very successful in reaching out and creating lasting projects in cooperation with scholars from abroad, especially Europe.
In addition to research themes, projects and programmes pursued by Swedish historians of technology, it is important to point out that much research in Sweden is achieved by Ph.
It is no exaggeration to claim that Swedish history of technology was born out of museums and an interest in industrial history. The field was introduced in engineering education in the s by the first director of The National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm, Torsten Althin.
There are still close connections between the museum sphere and different institutions of research and higher education in Sweden. This is evident not only from projects pursued at for instance the Nobel Museum in Stockholm, founded and managed by Prof.
Although museum tours are regularly used in education, connections can be developed further still. Coordinated research programmes involving both university and museum resources, intellectual as well as material, are scarce to say the least. Here is evidently another future challenge for Swedish historians of technology. There are about 15 members of the committee the number varies over time evenly distributed geographically as well as intellectually.
The most important undertaking of the committee is its biannual conferences in history of technology and science where junior scholars as well as senior ones participate. The latest occurrence of such a meeting was in April when almost a hundred scholars, predominantly Swedes, convened at the National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm. In addition, the Committee has been publishing a Swedish quarterly in the history of technology named Polhem established by another founding father of history of technology in Sweden, Prof.
Jan Hult. In order to qualify for necessary financial support, it has been transformed into a peer-review publication. In recent years, Polhem has been published as a yearbook and today, there are discussions regarding its future, not the least its form of publication. Swedish history of technology stands strong in national as well as international comparison.
Still, there are important challenges for the future. Another challenge, probably not altogether disconnected from the effort to raise visibility in higher education is to involve museum resources not only in education, but also in research activities. As should be evident from what has been stated here, both universities and engineering schools constitute important institutional foundations for Swedish history of technology.
There are indeed strong links between them, but more often than not relying on personal ties rather than institutional bridges with the National Committee for the History of Science and Technology as a notable exception. In order to further strengthen the institutional status of the field, it would advantageous to create even stronger institutional links, for instance through active electronic billboards or email-lists.
In doing this, it is however important to formulate goals where such links are necessary. Only with lively and all-encompassing discussions regarding the future of Swedish history of technology can its position be strengthened even further, making it a resource for intellectuals and practitioners alike, both at universities and outside.
Olsson, Lars O. Olsson and C-A. Olsson in the bibliography.
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Thomas Kaiserfeld Dep. Swedish history of technology may not be an oxymoron by definition, but is still a concept laden with such an unconformity as to make it virtually impossible to handle in a stringent manner. In Sweden, research problems connected to technologies of the past are pursued within such a wide range of institutions and intellectual fields that it is a hopeless task indeed to give a full account without missing important themes, topics and projects. The task is not simplified if one is to include all those historians of technology interested in empirical material that can be denoted Swedish in one way of another. Thus, the following is not to be regarded as a full report, but rather a superficial and personally biased review with ambitions set far too high.
Den kupade handen: historien om människan och tekniken