The sample for the study consisted in children obtained from a ramdomized stratified sampling considering the regions of Chile. Results show a great coincidence with those obtained in the original north-american sample: we obtained the same four intelligence factors and high internal consistencies. Nevertheless, the subscales included in the factors differ slightly from the north-american results. Esta escala fue estandarizada en Chile en por Campazzo. Al respecto, en Estados Unidos diversas investigaciones muestran que en los mismos individuos, los CI.
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Intellect Dev Disabil 1 April ; 57 2 : 79— Down syndrome DS is characterized by difficulties in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. These sets of abilities are considered as separate but related domains with small to moderate correlations. The main objective of this study was to explore the relationship of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior in adolescents with DS because previous studies have shown different relationship patterns between these constructs across other syndromes.
Fifty-three adolescents with DS were assessed regarding their intellectual functioning whereas adaptive behavior was reported by parents and teachers. Participants showed a better performance on verbal than nonverbal tasks when assessing intellectual functioning, contrary to previous findings.
Regarding adaptive behavior, higher social skills were reported than conceptual and practical skills. Intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior showed a medium correlation, consistent with observations in typical population. These results support the exploration of the variability across the DS phenotype. Globally, there has been an increase in pregnancies resulting in DS from However, due to the development of better prenatal diagnostic techniques and the increased use of procedures to terminate a pregnancy, the incidence of DS has remained stable at about 0.
In Chile, where the deliberate termination of pregnancies is less common, the rise in incidence of DS increased from 1. The high incidence of DS has prompted the need to better understand how their developmental pathways may differ from children and adolescents without DS. These two areas are key in the diagnosis of intellectual disability ID , which is characterized by significant limitation in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, originating before age 18 Schalock et al.
Hence, although longitudinal studies have reported decreasing IQ scores in tests of intelligence, most raw scores and mental age scores tend to rise with chronological age Grieco et al.
On average, IQ scores in people with DS range from 20 to 70, with the mean being in the 40s Steingass et al. Specifically, language is usually characterized by delays in syntax and phonological processing that can affect both expression and higher order comprehension. There is also a trend to analyze visuospatial information using a global approach. The observed deficits in tasks of explicit long-term memory seem to be associated with problems in encoding and retrieval Grieco et al.
Several studies have pointed out that the relative weakness in communication observed throughout development is associated with deficits in expressive language and is not a generalized limitation in all aspects of communication e. Although several studies have reported on the behavioral phenotype that characterizes DS, researchers have also pointed out the great variability within these individuals. As with the typical population, individual differences in genetic, brain, cognition, and behavior have been described in DS.
Authors specify the need to not only consider them as a group, but also to study their variability Karmiloff-Smith et al.
For example, in a study with children with DS, Tsao and Kindelberger identified four cognitive profiles: a one cluster with relatively equivalent scores in verbal and nonverbal tasks, close to the means; b a second cluster with difficulties across tasks, but particularly in verbal tests; c a third cluster with better performance on verbal tests; and d a fourth cluster with strengths in nonverbal tasks.
As far as we know, there are no studies that have specifically explored the relationship between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior in DS. The precise relationship between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior has been debated in the diagnosis of ID in general. A study that modeled different forms of relationship between these two constructs unrelated, related but different, and identical concluded that intellectual abilities and adaptive behavior are better explained as separate but related domains, with small to moderate correlations.
These differences show the possibility of specific patterns of correlations across syndromes. In DS other variables have been studied. For example, one study found a positive correlation between adaptive behavior and chronological age in children between 1 and Libb, Myers, Graham, and Bell reported negative correlations between age and IQ scores and age and adaptive behavior scores, respectively, in their longitudinal study with 3-month-olds to year-olds.
Authors also reported positive correlations between intelligence and adaptive behavior with the level of parental education. Differences have also been reported along varied demographic characteristics. They hypothesized that these differences are related to an emphasis on structured daily routines and semi-independent skills in the institution, whereas in a home environment other members of the house can assume more responsibilities Brown et al.
As an exploratory study, our objective was to explore the relationship between performance on measures of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and how chronological age, education, and socioeconomic status SES impact intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior in adolescents with DS.
As stated before, correlations between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior have not been explored in DS. Furthermore, the effects of sociodemographic variables on development have been studied mostly in younger children, whereas the effects of age have been studied either across the different stages of childhood or between wide age ranges up until adulthood, but not specifically in adolescence. For this study 56 adolescents were included between the ages of 12 to 17 years old at the initial assessment, all with a medical diagnosis of DS confirmed with a karyotype.
Three participants were excluded due to the presence of a comorbid ASD diagnosis. The final sample consisted of 53 adolescents with DS 16 females and 37 males with a mean age of Participants were recruited with the assistance of DS organizations in Santiago, Chile. More descriptive information can be found in Table 1. The test comprises six verbal subtests and seven performance subtests.
The Chilean version was adapted from the Argentinian Spanish translation and standardized on 1, Chilean children. The WAIS-IV is the adult version of the intelligence test for individuals between 16 years, 0 months to 90 years, 11 months. The first two index scores include three of the main subtests and two complementary ones, whereas the last two index scores include two other main subtests and a complementary one.
The FSIQ is obtained by adding the scores of each main subtests. The Chilean version was standardized on adults based on the original U.
Reliability and validity were established Rosas et al. The ABAS-II is a scale used to assess a wide range of skills necessary for personal and social sufficiency in daily activities in children and adults from birth to 89 years. Because there are no standardized Chilean tests for the assessment of adaptive behavior, we opted for the use of this Spanish adaptation normed on a comparable Spanish population. The data for this study were obtained from a larger study investigating the effects of an intervention program in the development of executive functions in adolescents with DS.
The corresponding author can be contacted for more information about the larger study. Parents of the participants were invited to an interview where the objectives and procedures of the study and intervention were explained to them. If they agreed to participate, consent and assent forms for the participant adolescent were reviewed and signed.
This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards presented in the Declaration of Helsinki. For this study, intellectual functioning, adaptive behavior, age, education, and SES were measured. From these tests, we obtained the FSIQ as a measure of general intellectual functioning. For the study, the nine ability scales i.
An explanation of each scale and how are they distributed between domains can be seen in Table 2. Education was measured in two ways: First we divided the adolescents between the ones enrolled in a school in school and the ones not attending school not in school.
We called that variable schooling. We created a second related variable called type of education , in which we divided the participants that attended school between those integrated into general education classrooms general and those enrolled in special schools for students with disabilities special.
It is important to note that all students that did not attend school, and four students SES low , middle , high was assessed using the type of funding received by the schools the participants attend. In Chile, schools are classified into three categories, depending on their source of funding: 1 public schools, which are fully funded by the state; 2 combined-funded schools that receive funding from both the state and parents i.
Hence, type of school attended by the child and its source of funding has been used as a proxy for family SES in several other studies with Chilean population e.
For some of the analyses, the participants were classified in three age groups: a early adolescence 12—13 years old ; b middle adolescence 14—15 years old ; and c late adolescence 16—17 years old. IQ means and standard deviations can be seen in Table 3. Refer again to Table 4. When analyzing data separately by age group i.
Teachers did not report significant differences in adaptive behavior scores across age groups. Intellectual functioning by age group. IQ scores total, verbal, and performance on the late adolescent group are significantly higher than the middle and early adolescent groups. No significant differences are observed between the early and middle adolescent groups. Regarding schooling i. When grouping the sample by type of education i. No significant differences by type of education were observed in IQ scores and adaptive behavior scores reported by teachers.
Adaptive behavior scales by type of education—parents. Parents of adolescents in general education schools report significantly higher scores for communication and functional academics, than parents of adolescents in special schools or not in school. Adaptive behavior domains by type of education—parents. Parents of adolescents in general education schools report significantly higher scores for the Conceptual domain, than parents of adolescents in special schools or not in school.
Analyses conducted when grouping by SES i. Finally, as seen in Table 5 , linear correlation analyses using Pearson r showed significant moderate to strong positive correlations between FSIQ and communication, functional academics, self-direction, self-care, and Conceptual domain, as reported by parents and teachers; plus, the Practical domain, and GAC as reported by parents.
The objective of this study was to explore intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior in adolescents with DS and to analyze how different sociodemographic variables impact these constructs.
We then compared the nine ABAS-II scales, along with the three main domains, and the GAC, between parents and teachers, to look for possible differences on how they assess adaptive functioning in the adolescents with DS. Finally, we explored the correlation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior in our sample. At this time, we do not have an accurate explanation for these findings, although hypotheses arise. One possibility is that these results are related to successful intervention programs.
In our sample, Unfortunately, we do not have precise information on the specific areas intervened or current treatments or intervention programs the adolescents might be receiving e. Hence, we cannot conclude that these interventions are responsible for better performance on the verbal tasks, although a possibility worth analyzing in the future. Another factor that should be taken into account is the Tsao and Kindelberger study that identified a cluster of children with DS that had better performance on verbal tasks.
This finding opens the possibility of an alternative cognitive profile in DS that is different from what has previously been reported. Further research would be necessary to understand why this cluster seems to be overrepresented in our sample.
This will mean that these results could be related to the test differences, rather than actual differences in their intellectual abilities. It is important to take into account that the WAIS and WISC versions from previous studies differ from the ones used in our study; thus, we cannot be certain that our results are completely explained by them. Moreover, as Gordon and colleagues explain, we currently do not know why this difference is observed in ID and not in the typically developing population.
The fact that we did not find IQ differences between schooling or type of education might mean that intellectual functioning was not a factor considered when school placement was decided for these adolescents.
Cuaderno de Estímulos WISC III