Integrated with the S-Bahn, the Hamburg U-Bahn is an important and comprehensive means of public transport in the city of Hamburg, Germany. This Operated by the Hamburger Hochbahn AG, this metro system began operations in the year Currently, it operates along 4 lines, serving 91 stations in total. With an annual ridership of million, it definitely stands out as one of the popular means of public transportation in Hamburg , as well as the other nearby cities. The metro starts operation from 4.
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Together with the S-Bahn , a network of suburban train lines, and a tram network that operates mostly in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in , the U-Bahn serves stations  spread across ten lines, with a total track length of Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border.
These were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. The system was reopened completely following the fall of the Berlin Wall, and German reunification.
The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions, industrialist and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September , work began on a mostly elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten , with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz.
Known as the " Stammstrecke ", the route was inaugurated on 15 February , and was immediately popular. The elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn. The early network ran mostly east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable.
In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north—south lines to be established. Work resumed in , although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. Desperately underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network; the carriages exits had to be widened to fill the gap to the platforms with wooden boards that passengers jokingly referred to as Blumenbretter "boards for flower pots".
The completed route was opened on 18 April The major development was stopped in The seizure of power by the National Socialists brought many changes that affected Germany, including the U-Bahn.
Most notably, the national flag was hung in every station, and two of the stations were renamed. Extensive plans—mostly the work of architect Albert Speer —were drawn up that included the construction of a circular line crossing the established U-Bahn lines, and new lines or extensions to many outlying districts.
Despite such grand plans, no U-Bahn development occurred. During the Second World War , U-Bahn travel soared as car use fell, and many of the underground stations were used as air-raid shelters ; however, Allied bombs damaged or destroyed large parts of the U-Bahn system.
Although the damage was usually repaired fairly quickly, the reconstructions became more difficult as the war went on. Eventually, on 25 April , the whole system ground to a halt when the power station supplying the network failed.
Upon unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany following the Battle for Berlin there were damaged points and damaged vehicles. The war had damaged or destroyed much of the network; however, Nevertheless, the consequent division of Berlin into East and West sectors brought further changes to the U-Bahn.
Although the network spanned all sectors, and residents had freedom of movement, West Berliners increasingly avoided the Soviet sector and, from , loudspeakers on the trains gave warnings when approaching the border, where passage of East Germans into the Western sectors also became subject to restrictions imposed by their government.
There was a general strike on 17 June which closed the sections of the Berlin U-Bahn that traveled through East Berlin. Extending the C line to run from Tegel to Alt-Mariendorf was considered the highest priority: the northern extension to Tegel was opened on 31 May In order to circumvent East Berlin, and provide rapid-transport connections to the densely populated areas in Steglitz , Wedding , and Reinickendorf , a third north—south line was needed.
It had been planned to open the G line on 2 September , but an earlier opening on 28 August was forced by the announcement of the construction of the Berlin Wall. The next crisis was followed by the Berlin Wall construction on 13 August , which had split the Berlin into east and west.
A further consequence over the years is that most of the Berlin S-Bahn passengers boycotted the Deutsche Reichsbahn, and transferred to the U-Bahn with numerous expansion. From 9 November , following months of unrest, the travel restrictions placed upon East Germans were lifted. Tens of thousands of East Berliners heard the statement live on television and flooded the border checkpoints, demanding entry into West Berlin.
It was the first station to be reopened after the opening of the Berlin Wall. In the decade following reunification, only three short extensions were made to U-Bahn lines. In the s some stations in the eastern portion of the city still sported bullet-riddled tiles at their entrances, a result of World War II battle damage during the Battle of Berlin. These were removed by 21 December Among Berlin's U-Bahn stations  there are many with especially striking architecture or unusual design characteristics:.
Hermannplatz station resembles something of a U-Bahn cathedral. The platform area is 7 metres high, metres long and 22 metres wide. The architecturally important department store Karstadt adjacent to the station, was being constructed at the same time. Karstadt contributed a large sum of money towards the decoration of the station and was in return rewarded with direct access from the station to the store. Hermannplatz was also the first U-Bahn station in Berlin to be equipped with escalators.
Today, Hermannplatz is a busy interchange between the U7 and U8. Alexanderplatz station is another of the more notable U-Bahn stations in Berlin, and is an important interchange between three lines U2, U5 and U8. The first part of the station was opened in along with an extension of today's U2 line. In the s Alexanderplatz was completely redesigned, both above and below ground.
The U-Bahn station was expanded to provide access to the new D today's U8 and E today's U5 lines, then under construction.
The result was a station with a restrained blue-grey tiled colour-scheme and Berlin's first underground shopping facilities, designed by Alfred Grenander. Over the last few years Alexanderplatz station has, in stages, been restored; the work was due to be finished in Wittenbergplatz station is also unusually designed.
It opened in as a simple station with two side platforms, designed to plans created by Paul Wittig. A provision for a sixth platform was included but has never been completed. The redesign also featured a new entrance building, which blended into the grand architectural styles of Wittenbergplatz and the nearby KaDeWe department store. The interior of the entrance building was again rebuilt after considerable war damage during World War II, this time in a contemporary s style.
This lasted until the early s when the interior was retro-renovated back into its original style. Wittenbergplatz station was presented with a London style "Roundel type" station sign in , the 50th Anniversary of the Berlin U-Bahn. Today's station is an interchange station between the U1, U2 and U3 lines. The name of the Gleisdreieck rail triangle station is reminiscent of a construction which can only be imagined today. The wye was built in the opening year Plans for a redesign were made soon after, because the wye was already obsolete.
An accident on September 26, which claimed 18 to 21 lives was the final straw. The redesign and expansion of the Turmbahnhof , during which the station was still used, took until After World War II the station was put back into service on October 21 lower platform , and November 18 upper platform , However, service was interrupted again by the construction of the Berlin Wall. From onwards no trains ran on the lower platform, because servicing the U2 was no longer profitable due to the parallel traffic on the U1.
The lower platform was reactivated in , when the test line of the M-Bahn was built from the Gleisdreieck to the Kemperplatz station. It was broken down again after the fall of the Berlin Wall, since it obstructed parts of the reopened U2.
Since the U1 and U2 trains both service the station again. Berlin public transit passes are available from many places, automated and non-automated, from BVG, Bahn, and authorized third-parties. The Ring-Bahn Line and the other S-Bahn lines are included, as are all U-Bahn lines, buses, trams, ferries, and most trains within the city limits: tickets are valid for all transportation considered part of the Berlin-Regional public transit system.
Ride-passes tickets are available in fare classes: Adult and Reduced. Children between the ages of six and 14 and large dogs qualify for the reduced fare. Children below the age of six and small dogs travel free. There are senior discounts in the form of an annual ticket. The disability identification card must be in the owner's possession when traveling. These identification cards are cleared through the normal government offices, then fulfilled at a BVG ride-pass non-automated location.
Provided either by the Job Center Arbeitsamt for out-of-work residents or by the Sozialamt for people who cannot work or are disabled, the S-Class ride-passes normally restrict travel to the AB zones and must be renewed a new pass purchased at a non-automated location on the 1st of each month.
Additional passes are available for those which want to bring a bicycle on the public transit system. A bicycle-pass is included in the Student-class ride-pass, which is provided through the universities. For small dogs which can be carried there is no additional fare requirement. For each "large dog", a reduced fare ride-pass must be purchased. Tourist ride-passes, all-day, group passes, and season passes include a dog fare. BVG ride-passes are issued for specific periods of time, and most require validation with a stamping machine before they are first used.
The validation shows the date and time of the first use, and where the ticket was validated in code , and therefore when the ticket expires. For example, once validated, an all-day pass allows unlimited use from the time of purchase to am the following day.
Unlike most other metro systems, tickets in Berlin are not checked before entering tram, U-Bahn or S-Bahn stations. They are however checked by the bus drivers upon entering. On the tram, S-Bahn and U-Bahn, a proof-of-payment system is used: there are random spot checks inside by plain-clothed fare inspectors who have the right to demand to see each passenger's ticket.
The passenger may be required to pay on the spot, and is required on the spot to give a valid address to which the relevant fine notice can be mailed it does not have to be in Germany. On the third incident, the BVG calls the offender to court, as there is now a history of 'riding without paying'. This system was in place by for the E-Plus network, and was one of the first metro systems to allow mobile telephone use; by the late s the other networks could be used as well. Many of the carriages on the U-Bahn feature small flat screen displays that feature news headlines from BZ , weekly weather forecasts, and ads for local businesses.
Most major interchange stations have large shopping concourses with banks, supermarkets, and fast food outlets.
Hamburg U – Bahn
Its main objectives are to provide a unified fare system, requiring only a single ticket for journeys with transfers between different operating companies, and to facilitate and speed up travel by harmonising the individual companies' schedules. At its inception in , HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide. In HVV provides rail, bus and ferry transportation for an area of 8, square kilometres with approximately 3. HVV has approximately 1. With an average of 50, commuters per day the Metrobus 5 bus line is the busiest in Europe. In the city centre, stops are served without a specific schedule every two or three minutes and since December , extra long double-articulated buses have been used. The first results that the new organization delivered came on January 1, , with a unified fare structure, pooling of receipts and coordinated systemwide timetables across all modes of transport.
Together with the S-Bahn , a network of suburban train lines, and a tram network that operates mostly in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in , the U-Bahn serves stations  spread across ten lines, with a total track length of Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. These were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. The system was reopened completely following the fall of the Berlin Wall, and German reunification.