Prerequisite — PIC Microprocessor universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter USART acts as a mediator between microprocessor and peripheral to transmit serial data into parallel form and vice versa. In this way, this unit selects one of the three registers- data buffer register, control register, status register. GeeksforGeeks has prepared a complete interview preparation course with premium videos, theory, practice problems, TA support and many more features. Please refer Placement for details. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
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USART stands for U niversal S ynchronous and A synchronous R eceiver T ransmitter and functions as an intermediary that allows serial and parallel communication between the microprocessor and the peripheral devices. We know that microprocessors allow parallel communication. And in parallel communication, the number of cables required for data transmission is equal to the number of bits to be transmitted per cycle.
So, to reduce the overall cost of the system despite parallel data communication between the processor and peripheral devices, the serial transfer of data is permitted. Hence for this purpose, USART acts as a mediator between the processor and peripheral devices so, that the parallel data from the processor can be converted into serial data and efficiently transferred to the peripheral devices.
In a similar way, the serial data from the peripheral devices is converted by the USART into the parallel form so that it can be accepted by the processor.
Let us now understand the operation performed by each unit in detail:. Data Bus Buffer : It basically interfaces the with the internal system buses of the processor. The data bus buffer has 8-bit bidirectional data bus that allows the transfer of data bytes, status or command word between the processor and external devices. Basically, it performs decoding operation of the control signal produced by the processor, so that respective operation can be performed by the USART. Transmit Buffer: This unit is used to change the parallel data received from the CPU into serial data by inserting the necessary framing information.
Once the data is transformed into serial form, then in order to transmit it to the external devices, it is provided to the TxD pin of the As we have already discussed that it performs both synchronous and asynchronous transmission and reception.
Thus in case of asynchronous transmission, start and stop bit is added by the transmitter in order to notify the external devices about the data transmission. But in case of synchronous transmission, the clock signal is used thus there exists no need of adding additional bits expect the parity bit if required. Transmit Control : As the name of the unit is itself indicating that it is controlling the transmission action. And it does so by accepting and sending signals both externally and internally.
Receive Buffer : This unit takes the serial data from the external devices, changes the serial data into the parallel form so that it can be accepted by the processor. It consists of 2 registers: receiver input register and buffer register. When the external device is ready to send the data to the then it sends a low signal to the RxD line of the In asynchronous mode, once receives a low signal it considers that signal as start bit of the data. So, once the start bit is successfully accepted by , then it also receives the whole data bits in serial form along with parity and stop bits.
Once the data is received by the receiver input register then it converts the data bits in parallel form and sends it to the receiver buffer register. In case of the synchronous mode of operation, according to the clock input, the external device loads the serial data bits in the receiver input register. And on converting the serial data to parallel format the receiver input register sends the data to the buffer register.
This unit controls the operation of the receiver buffer. It manages the data reception, along with that it also detects the presence of false start bit, error in parity bit, framing errors etc. Modem Control : This unit of holds input and output control signals that simplify the operation of the whole system. The control circuitry for handing various signals is provided by the modem control unit.
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As a peripheral device of a microcomputer system, the receives parallel data from the CPU and transmits serial data after conversion. This device also receives serial data from the outside and transmits parallel data to the CPU after conversion. The functional configuration is programed by software. Operation between the and a CPU is executed by program control. Table 1 shows the operation between a CPU and the device. Mode instruction is used for setting the function of the Mode instruction will be in "wait for write" at either internal reset or external reset.
Microprocessor | 8251 USART