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This course will introduce you to the field of computer science and the fundamentals of computer programming. Introduction to Computer Science I is specifically designed for students with no prior programming experience, and taking this course does not require a background in Computer Science.
This course will touch upon a variety of fundamental topics within the field of Computer Science and will use Java, a high-level, portable, and well-constructed computer programming language developed by Sun Microsystems now Oracle , to demonstrate those principles. We will begin with an overview of the course topics as well as a brief history of software development. By the end of the course, you should have a strong understanding of the fundamentals of Computer Science and the Java programming language.
This course will lay the groundwork for a strong educational in Computer Science and a successful career devoted to implementing the principles you will learn as you progress through the CS discipline. We will begin this course by identifying our motivation for learning fundamental programming concepts and learning the history of programming languages in general.
We will then discuss the hardware the physical devices that make up the computer and software Operating Systems and applications that run on the computer of a computer.
We will conclude with a brief discussion of the Java programming language, which we will use throughout the rest of this course.
By the end of this unit, you will have a strong understanding of the history of programming and be well prepared to learn about programming concepts in greater detail. Please read this article, which focuses on the evolution of programming languages over the years. Please review the notes for Chapter 1.
For maximum benefit, go through these notes interactively, thinking about and answering the questions at the bottom of each page. These notes are an experiment in applying the "programmed learning" method to web-based computer aided instruction. The subject is Java Programming for beginning programmers. The content is intended to start beginning programmers out on the track to professional-level programming and reinforce learning by providing abundant feedback.
Please watch this lecture on binary numbers, which are used to represent numbers in computer memory. In fact, all types of information, not just numbers, but characters as well, are stored in memory using binary bits i. We still write numbers in our programs using decimal numbers, but the interpreter converts them to binary when it interprets them for execution as part of a machine language instruction the interpreter interprets the Java or Python statement to equivalent, i.
If you are familiar with and understand the concepts of base 10 radix decimal number system and base 2 radix binary number system , you may skip this lecture. Please review the notes for Chapter 4. As you work through the notes, think about and answer the questions at the bottom of each page. Please read this brief article about the programming lifecycle. As you read, consider the following steps of the programming lifecycle:.
This article defines a "compiler" and an "interpreter. The translated program is saved and can be executed at a later time, hence the terms, "compile time" and "execution time. To execute it again, the interpreter would have to translate it again and then re-execute it. The following reading will elaborate on this distinction.
These allow you to compile and run programs quickly and easily using only your browser. This link will take you to Repl. Note that you may be asked to log in, but this is entirely optional, and is only useful if you want to save your code for later. The next subunit in this course will discuss how to install Java on your machine, if you choose to do so, but please note that this is optional, and we recommend using an online IDE until you are comfortable with the language and want to dig in deeper.
Even so, we recommend using an online IDE, as described in the section above, for writing your first simple programs for this course and getting used to Java. If you do decide to install Java on your machine, read the instructions carefully to set the "classpath" mentioned in Step 3. Once JDK has been installed, you can write a simple Java program using an editor such as notepad and run it from a command prompt. Using an IDE means that you have all of the tools you need in one place -- your "development environment" -- instead of having to organize things manually.
If you decide to install NetBeans, use the instructions in Step 2 to write a simple Java program called "Hello. Again, keep in mind that installing NetBeans is entirely optional, and we recommend using an online IDE like the one described in subunit 1. Please work through this tutorial. Java is an Object-Oriented programming language. Since Object-Oriented programming OO is currently one of the most popular programming paradigms, you will need to learn its fundamental concepts in order to build a career in Computer Science.
This unit will begin with a discussion of what makes OO programming so unique, and why its advantages have made it the industry-standard paradigm for newly designed programs.
We will then discuss the fundamental concepts of OO and relate them back to Java. By the end of this unit, you will have a strong understanding of what Object-Oriented programming is, how it relates to Java, and why it is employed. Please read this article. The Java Tutorials are practical guides for programmers who want to use the Java programming language to create applications.
They include hundreds of complete, working examples, and dozens of lessons. Groups of related lessons are organized into "trails.
Please note that the concept of classes is the same in different languages, though the syntax varies. Read section Please read this section. This section explains fundamentals of object oriented programming.
As you read, focus on the following concepts:. Classes vs. Encapsulation is to put both data, and operations that can be performed on this data, in a single class.
The advantages of encapsulation include information hiding, which means the user does not need to know the implementation details of the internal design, but is still be able to access and modify the data through public operations provided. Inheritance is to reuse the existing classes when creating a new class.
The derived class will inherit public operations defined in the base class. It usually involves a hierarchy of related entities. Read this article, which explains the concept of polymorphism, a critical concept for OO programming. Now that you have a basic understanding of OO programming, we will move on to the fundamental concepts of the programming language we will be studying this semester: Java. The Java-related concepts you will learn in this unit are in many cases directly transferable to a number of other languages.
In addition, we will also learn about two different styles of adding comments to the code. By the end of this unit, you should have a fundamental understanding of Java basics and be prepared to utilize those concepts later in the course. Completing this unit should take you approximately 22 hours.
Please read through the first three pages of this chapter. These three pages discuss the naming conventions as well as the reserved words in Java programming language. If you wrote the Hello. Java classes and interfaces can be organized into packages to group related types and for name-space management. You first encountered this chapter in sub-subunit 3. Continue reading this chapter from page 4 to the end.
Alternatively, you may decide to read the entire chapter, reviewing pages 1 - 3. The chapter discusses common syntax errors in Java as well as guidelines to fix those errors. The last section of this chapter provides instructions on adding comments inside Java code. Please read through the chapter and follow all the steps. This chapter provides step-by-step instructions of writing a Java program using Notepad and then compiling and running this program from command prompt.
We can also use NetBeans for writing the same program. Please complete the fill in the blank exercise. Think of the appropriate response to fill in the blanks. Please read this article, as well as the article on Variables , for an understanding of the differences between literals and variables. Please watch the lecture for an introduction to programming basic data types. This is one of a group of Khan Lectures that are used in this course.
All of these lectures demonstrate programming concepts using Python. You have been introduced to Python in sub-subunit 2. Python is an interpreted programming language that can be used to write procedural or object-oriented programs. It is easy to understand and write Python programs.
One of its distinctive features is that it is dynamically typed. This means that a declaration is not needed to declare the type of a name. The Python interpreter determines the type of a name at execution time. Programming languages have syntax and semantics. Syntax is the set of grammar rules for writing statements in the language.
Semantics are the meanings attached to the statements. For the lecture series, concentrate on the semantics or meanings. It is not our intent to teach Python here, but to use Python to teach programming concepts. The value of these lectures lies primarily in the programming concepts that they demonstrate.
From sub-subunit 1. First, one must devise a plan for solving the problem called the design of the program. Then, a solution must be built based on the design, using a programming language called the implementation or program implementation --in this lecture, Python programs.
Finally, you should test the program to check that it solves the problem i.
Introduction to computer science using Java
T his is a first course in Computer Science using the programming language Java. It covers the fundamentals of programming and of computer science. For maximum benefit, go though these notes interactively, thinking about and answering the question at the bottom of each page. There are about 15 pages per chapter. If you spend about 3 minutes per page each chapter will take about 45 minutes; much more, if you copy and run some of the programs. If you are a beginning programmer, plan on spending more than a month with this. They may be used with more sophisticated environments, as well.
Introduction to Computer Science using Java
Welcome to , where everyone either is a programmer or wishes they were one. False dichotomy , you say? Some people are just more into it than others, and many discount the things they do every day that count as basic programming. And they work. What A clean, clear, modular, readily accessible web-text that will introduce you to computer systems and architecture, terminology, and the basics of programming in Java most of which translate pretty easily into other computing languages. Who Bradley Kjell, Ph. Highlights The reading is short and to the point, the text is packed with exercises you can try in browser or using very simple software, and well-designed quizzes help you iron out wrinkles in your understanding.