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These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated.
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Article Views Altmetric -. Citations Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is the article's first page. Cited By. This article is cited by publications. Hermann, Marc A. Tautermann, Alexander Weber. Organic Letters , 22 7 , The Journal of Organic Chemistry , 85 4 , Landry, James J. Grandner, Yongsheng Chen, Jack A. Terrett, Malcolm P.
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Organic Letters , 21 9 , Wong, James J. Mousseau, Steven J. Mansfield, Edward A. Organic Letters , 21 7 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 10 , Miklos Szantai-Kis, E. James Petersson, Douglas A. Biosynthesis and Chemical Applications of Thioamides.
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Evans, David W. Decarboxylative Trifluoromethylation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 21 , Srinivasa Reddy. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 61 9 , Organic Letters , 19 24 , Robinson, Victoria C. Smith, Stephen Brand, Stuart P. McElroy, Leah S. Frearson, Kevin D. Read, Ian H. Gilbert, and Paul G. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 60 23 , Wilke, and Erin E. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 60 19 , Journal of the American Chemical Society , 39 , Felts, Khalil A.
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Coppola, Thomas Daniels, Cornelia J. Forster, Thomas A.
Isosterism and Bioisosterism in Drug Design
Isosterism and bioisosterism in drug design.
In medicinal chemistry , bioisosteres are chemical substituents or groups with similar physical or chemical properties which produce broadly similar biological properties to another chemical compound. In drug design ,  the purpose of exchanging one bioisostere for another is to enhance the desired biological or physical properties of a compound without making significant changes in chemical structure. The main use of this term and its techniques are related to pharmaceutical sciences. Bioisosterism is used to reduce toxicity, change bioavailability , or modify the activity of the lead compound, and may alter the metabolism of the lead. Classical bioisosterism was originally formulated by James Moir and refined by Irving Langmuir  as a response to the observation that different atoms with the same valence electron structure had similar biological properties. For example, the replacement of a hydrogen atom with a fluorine atom at a site of metabolic oxidation in a drug candidate may prevent such metabolism from taking place. Because the fluorine atom is similar in size to the hydrogen atom the overall topology of the molecule is not significantly affected, leaving the desired biological activity unaffected.