Springer Professional. Back to the search result list. Table of Contents. Hint Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book Close hint. Abstract The striving for the use in the operation of dome structures of all the elements creating the dome: ribs and the plank shell led to the creation of a dome having the form of a thin-wall rotating shell. Thin-wall domes were called such domes in which of an essential importance in the load capacity of the structure is the shell from planks nailed onto the meridionally laid assembly ribs.
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All Rights Reserved. This work is subject to copyright. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc.
The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. There appeared a humanitarian architecture  looking for building solutions that provide a potential for survival in disasters, also the potential for the development of the society after disasters.
The humanitarian architecture creates the process of the balanced growth of the place and the people who live therein. The most advanced technologically and economically types of wooden structures, such as shell roof coverings, are worth adding to the humanitarian architecture. A special variety of such roof coverings are axially symmetrical coverings from solid wood, as discussed in this publication.
Wood is the unique building material renewable in a way that it fosters the human environment, even reconstructing that environment, contaminated by the heavy industry products. While consuming carbon dioxide, it delivers oxygen to the atmosphere. Wooden domes collated and described in this publication are a favourable alternative to other building industry types.
The process of moving from post-beam systems up to reaching arches and dome forms, including wooden domes, lasted for centuries.
Systems of a very favourable relationship of load capacity to the weight of a structure were developed by evo- lution. Despite many advantages, there are few records in the references on their subject. The existing information is fragmentary. Many solutions of dome structures vanished jointly with the people who built them. It is the intent of the author to propagate the knowledge of economic and eco-friendly wooden dome structures.
For the further development of wooden structures, among others, domes, the author compiled the most urgent topics of theoretic research studies and analyses. The form of a dome has a minimum outside surface in relation to that being covered. This results in a lower airflow resistance, owing to which domes are more resistant to the interference of wind and climatic impacts.
The minimum outside surface limits losses of heat, increases energy savings, and reduces heating costs. The centre of gravity located quite low brings about that they are more stable in the situation of an earthquake.
The publication aggregates historical examples and. The monograph discusses 36 structural solutions of historical domes and compares them to nine examples of the most eminent accomplishments of domes made from glued laminated timber.
The structure of some forgotten domes was reconstructed on the basis of the available information remainders. The missing data were supple- mented on wooden models or computer visualizations so as to present the most advanced, technologically and economically, types of historical wooden structures. Their characteristic feature is that they are geometrically invariable, being safe in use at the same time.
The adaptation of the construction to the dome shape, using the properties of wood, followed over centuries, which resulted in the development of reliable systems. The structural solutions consisting in the multiple prestressing of load-carrying elements brought about the development of systems having a high load capacity at a minor weight of the wood applied, including that of common quality.
The comparison of the accomplishments of a large cubic capacity from glued laminated timber and domes from non-glued laminated timber allows to notice a lower consumption of materials as converted per unit of the projection area for historical domes.
They should continue to be developed based on the improvement of systems characteristic of wood. In the present-day edition of this monograph, the historical part has been sup- plemented with new examples of dome structures of facilities, built until the middle of the twentieth century.
They have been compared against the largest domes from glued laminated timber built in — The description of the research has been broadened by the testing of wood properties. I yield thanks to Prof. Zbigniew Kowal, Ph. I yield my respectful thanks to all those who contributed to the publication of this book.
The aim of this monograph is to present the opportunities of using wood as con- struction material in which both the architects and the designer can achieve various useful, cheap and aesthetic facilities, even for the most fastidious user. In modern times, wood is a re-discovered material due to its mechanical and eco-friendly properties.
Wood is the unique construction material the production of which is accompanied by the absorption of many environmental pollutants, including carbon dioxide. In the photosynthesis reactions, in the presence of light, there follows the bonding of water collected by wood from soil and carbon dioxide from air. The products of this reaction are carbohydrates and oxygen.
The generally known reaction follows according to the scheme:. While growing and increasing their weight, trees supply oxygen to the atmo- sphere. Wood is the unique construction material renewable in a friendly way to the atmosphere, and even reconstructing this environment contaminated by the heavy industry products, which was described by the authors Krutul D.
As a comparison, the production of steel from ore, e. Fe2O3—hematite of the highest iron content , used commonly in building industry, consists in the reduction with coal of oxide ores, supplying huge amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmo- sphere—CO.
Besides, wood is a construction material that is relatively easily treatable. Structures made from wood can be combined and adapted on the construction site, sometimes by the economic way, with the use of the simplest tools. Wood is a particular construction material, richly provided by nature. The detailed learning of the structure, biology, chemistry and mechanical behaviour of wood under various environmental conditions, allows its correct application.
Professor Krutul D. The chemical structure affects the resistance or susceptibility to corrosion, e. The increase in the durability of wooden structures, especially prestigious ones, can be achieved by using natural defensive mechanisms of wood, by resigning from some methods that destroy its structure, in particular mechanical properties.
The susceptibility of wood to external factors can be used, revealing its beauty, like in the furniture items by Michael Thonet described by Sassone A. In this area, particularly valuable is the testing carried out by the team of Bednarek Z.
The test results were described in the work  revealing that salt preparations used for wood impregnation decrease its strength. This information is of basic importance in the securing of wood used in the construction of thin-wall shells, including domes. Among many systems built from wood, domes have been selected, as the most advanced technologically types of wooden structures.
Their historical development has been tracked, pointing out to optimum solutions, suitable for a general application. The shaping of domes from solid wood differs from that of domes made from other materials. It requires some knowledge on the realization of wooden elements of load-bearing constructions, on connections, on the geometrical shaping of the dome sphere adapted to the properties of wood.
Since the dawn of the building trade, prestigious building facilities roofed with domes from solid wood have been known. Unfortunately, the information on the wooden domes burnt down are fragmentary. Neither are unknown reports about the destruction of wooden domes, e. Figure 1. The outside, wooden structure, shielding the masonry shell, burnt down fully.
For the analysis of the masonry dome, just a section of the wooden structure shielding it earlier is attached. The wooden dome built in burnt down on 25 August Wooden domes are vanishing before our eyes, along with the knowledge that made up their creation. We know about them only from fragmentary, disordered reports by various authors. Attention, however, should be paid that wooden domes known from laconic descriptions were built with a high feeling of the structural stability and the properties of wood.
It is all the more noteworthy that they also were created in the severe, continental climate of Eastern Europe where considerable loads by wind, snow and temperature appear.
The research on the development of the structures of wooden domes is not only a tribute paid to the work and skills of the builders, but it also teaches the rational application and fabrication of useful wooden structures in present times.
In this work the development of the structure required to accomplish the form of wooden domes has been discussed. The testing allowing to better learn the properties of wood nec- essary for their construction have been suggested.
The technology based on the mechanics of wood can make the building of domes a cheap and eco-friendly undertaking. While tracking the development directions in the designing and realizations of domes throughout the world, the author has started her own search for dome structures from solid wood, as eco-friendly structures, created at the minimum wood consumption and associated minimum destruction of the environment.
Those systems were considered to be an attractive proposal for contemporary researchers, designers and users. The documentation of many domes from solid wood, and not glued laminated timber, has been reconstructed from rudimentary information found. Models from wood and computer visualizations of forgotten structures have been plotted and built.
It is the intention of the author to summarize the status of the knowledge on the domes made from solid wood, in order to ensure their further transformations based on the contemporary knowledge, using contemporary tools and calculation meth- ods.
Despite many presently accomplished structures from glued laminated timber, the experience in the area of building domes from solid wood is pre- cious and their propagation is recommended. Krutul D. Sassone A. Meble XIX wieku. Wydawnictwo Amber Warszawa Bednarek Z. This is applicable both to wooden structures, allowing to build stone and brick structures, and structural systems characteristic of wooden domes.
A hypothesis may be formulated that the creation of wooden domes was preceded by the development of scaffoldings for the building of stone domes.
In the historical process of the effective use of wooden structures, associated with domes, trans- formations of architecture, structure and understanding of statics, also the pro- duction of structural elements, the methods of their connection and building technologies are noticed. The prototype of the dome was created already in very remote times when man started building shelters in form of a hut from branches.
The proven form and structure of a hut from branches also happen to be an inspiration for contemporary architects. The author of the project was Imre Makovecz, a Hungarian architect from Budapest. The facility has a span of circa The natural appearance of the dome ribs emphasizes the rationalism of the structure and the beauty of the minimalist form.
In the civilizations of the East and the West, domes were built to distinguish the given facility from among other building structures. The sacral and prestigious facilities were crowned with a dome in order to achieve a strong urbanistic accent.
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