Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. For a complete list, please see the end of this document. This Dover edition, first published in , is an unabridged, unaltered republication of the work originally published in by the American Zionist Emergency Council, New York, based on a revised translation published by the Scopus Publishing Company, New York, , which was, in turn, based on the first English-language edition, A Jewish State , translated by Sylvie d'Avigdor, and published by Nutt, London, England, The Herzl text was originally published under the title Der Judenstaat in Vienna, Please see the note on the facing page for further details. Alkow, editor of this book.
|Published (Last):||22 November 2015|
|PDF File Size:||2.62 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.18 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Obvious typographical errors have been corrected. For a complete list, please see the end of this document. This Dover edition, first published in , is an unabridged, unaltered republication of the work originally published in by the American Zionist Emergency Council, New York, based on a revised translation published by the Scopus Publishing Company, New York, , which was, in turn, based on the first English-language edition, A Jewish State , translated by Sylvie d'Avigdor, and published by Nutt, London, England, The Herzl text was originally published under the title Der Judenstaat in Vienna, Please see the note on the facing page for further details.
Alkow, editor of this book. The bibliography and the chronology were prepared by the Zionist Archives and Library. To Mr. Louis Lipsky and to all of the above mentioned contributors, the American Zionist Emergency Council is deeply indebted.
Theodore Herzl was the first Jew who projected the Jewish question as an international problem. In , Leo Pinsker, a Jewish physician of Odessa, disturbed by the pogroms of , made a keen analysis of the position of the Jews, declared that anti-Semitism was a psychosis and incurable, that the cause of it was the abnormal condition of Jewish life, and that the only remedy for it was the removal of the cause through self-help and self-liberation.
The Jewish people must become an independent nation, settled on the soil of their own land and leading the life of a normal people. Moses Hess in his "Rome and Jerusalem" classified the Jewish question as one of the nationalist struggles inspired by the French Revolution.
Perez Smolenskin and E. Ben-Yehuda urged the revival of Hebrew and the resettlement of Palestine as the foundation for the rebirth of the Jewish people. Herzl was unaware of the existence of these works. His eyes were not directed to the problem in the same manner. When he wrote "The Jewish State" he was a journalist, living in Paris, sending his letters to the leading newspaper of Vienna, the Neue Freie Presse , and writing on a great variety of subjects.
He was led to see Jewish life as a phenomenon in a changing world. He had adapted himself to a worldly outlook on all life. Through his efforts, the Jewish problem was raised to the higher  level of an international question which, in his judgment, should be given consideration by enlightened statesmanship.
He was inspired to give his pamphlet a title that arrested attention. He wrote "The Jewish State" in a mood of restless agitation. His ideas were thrown pell-mell into the white heat of a spontaneous revelation. What was revealed dazzled and blinded him.
Alex Bein, in his excellent biography, gives an intriguing description, drawn from Herzl's "Diaries," of how "The Jewish State" was born. It was the revelation of a mystic vision with flashes and overtones of prophecy. This is what Bein says:. The clouds open. The thunder rolls. The lightning flashes about him.
A thousand impressions beat upon him at the same time—a gigantic vision. He cannot think; he is unable to move; he can only write; breathless, unreflecting, unable to control himself or to exercise his critical faculties lest he dam the eruption, he dashes down his thoughts on scraps of paper—walking, standing, lying down, on the street, at the table, in the night—as if under unceasing command.
So furiously did the cataract of his thoughts rush through him, that he thought he was going out of his mind. He was not working out the idea.
The idea was working him out. It would have been an hallucination had it not been so informed by reason from first to last. Not only did the Magic Title evoke a widespread interest among the intellectuals of the day, but it brought Jews out  of the ghettos and made them conscious of their origin and destiny.
It made them feel that there was a world that might be won for their cause, hitherto never communicated to strangers. Through Herzl, Jews were taught not to fear the consequences of an international movement to demand their national freedom. Thereafter, with freedom, they were to speak of a Zionist Congress, of national funds, of national schools, of a flag and a national anthem, and the redemption of their land.
Their spirits were liberated and in thought they no longer lived in ghettos. Herzl taught them not to hide in corners.
At the First Congress he said, "We have nothing to do with conspiracy, secret intervention or indirect methods. We wish to put the question in the arena and under the control of free public opinion. The beginnings of the Jewish renaissance preceded the appearance of "The Jewish State" by several decades.
In every section of Russian Jewry and extending to wherever the Jews clung to their Hebraic heritage, there was an active Zionist life. The reborn Hebrew was becoming an all-pervading influence. There were scores of Hebrew schools and academies. Hebrew journals of superior quality had a wide circulation. Ever since the pogroms of , the ideas of Pinsker and Smolenskin and Gordon were discussed with great interest and deep understanding. He has a poorer opinion of Yiddish, the common language of  Jews, which he regards as "the furtive language of prisoners.
With the advent of Herzl, however, Zionism was no more a matter of domestic concern only. It was no longer internal Jewish problem only, not a theme for discussion only at Zionist meetings, not a problem to heat the spirits of Jewish writers. The problem of Jewish exile now occupied a place on the agenda of international affairs. Herzl was not so distant from his people as many of the Russian Zionists at first surmised.
He was familiar with the social anti-Semitism of Austria and Germany. He knew of the disabilities of the Jews in Russia. There are many references in his feuilletons to matters of Jewish interest. In he wrote an article on French anti-Semitism in which he considered the solution of a return to Zion and seemed to reject it. He was present at the trial of Alfred Dreyfus in December, He witnessed the degradation of Dreyfus and heard the cries of "Down with the Jews" in the streets of Paris.
He read Edouard Drumont's anti-Semitic journal "La France Juive" and said, "I have to thank Drumont for much of the freedom of my present conception of the Jewish problem. What excited him in the  strangest way was the unaccountable indifference of Jews themselves to what seemed to him the menace of the existing situation.
He saw the Jews in every land encircled by enemies, hostility to them growing with the increase of their numbers. In his excitement he thought first of Jewish philanthropists. He sought an interview with Baron Maurice de Hirsch in May, He planned an address to the Rothschilds.
He talked of his ideas to friends in literary circles. His mind was obsessed by a gigantic problem which gave him no rest. He was struggling to pierce the veils of revelation.
He saw a world in which the Jewish people lacked a fulcrum for national action and therefore had to seek to create it through beneficence. He had a remarkably resourceful and agile imagination. He weighed ideas, balanced them, discarded them, reflected, reconsidered, tried to reconcile contradictions, and finally came to what seemed to him at the moment the synthesis of the issue which seemed acceptable to reason and sentiment.
Obviously, "The Jewish State" was not a dogmatic finality. Most of the plans for settlement and migration are improvisations. The pamphlet was not a rigid plan or a blueprint. It was not a description of a Utopia, although some parts of it give that impression. It had an indicated destiny but was not bound by a rigid line. It was the illumination of a dynamic thought and followed the light with the hope that it might lead to fulfillment.
There was room for detours and variations. It was to be rewritten, as he knew, not by its author but by the Jewish people on their way to freedom.
In fact, it was revised from the moment the Zionist  movement was organized on an international basis. The "Society of Jews" became the Zionist Organization, with its statutes, its procedures, its public excitement and controversies.
The description of the Gestor , which appears in the final chapter of the pamphlet, was never referred to again, but in effect it was incorporated in the idea of a state in-the-process-of-becoming. Its legitimate successor is the Jewish Agency referred to in the Mandate for Palestine. He was first led by the idea that the way to the charter was through the Sultan and that the Sultan would be influenced by Kaiser Wilhelm. But both princes failing him, he turned to England and Joseph Chamberlain, and came to the Uganda proposal.
This was Herzl's one political success although the project was, in effect, rejected by the Zionist Congress. But this encounter with England was a precedent which led to much speculation in Zionist circles and gave a turn to Zionist thought away from Germany and Turkey. It served to inspire Dr. Chaim Weizman to make his home in England with the express purpose of seeking English sympathy for the Zionist ideal.
When Herzl first appeared on the political scene, he thought of courtiers and statesmen, of princes and kings. He found that they could not be relied upon for truth or stability.
They were encircled by favorites and mercenaries. Enormous responsibilities rested upon their shoulders but they seemed to behave with regard to these responsibilities as if they were gamblers or amateurs. Herzl soon realized that these were frail reeds that would break under the slightest pressure. He came to put his trust in the Jewish people,  the only real source of strength for the purpose of redemption.
Confidence in themselves would give them power to breach their prison walls.
Texts Concerning Zionism: Excerpts from "The Jewish State"
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Central to it was the discrimination and hatred commonly known as anti-Semitism. Herzl's analysis of anti-Semitic discrimination is in many aspects similar to present sociological theories of middle-class minorities. His discussion of the economic aspects is compared with Gary Becker's theory of discrimination, and similarities as well as differences are pointed out. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve.
Texts Concerning Zionism: "The Jewish State"
It is astonishing how little insight into the science of economics many of the men who move in the midst of active life possess. Hence it is that even Jews faithfully repeat the cry of the Anti-Semites: "We depend for sustenance on the nations who are our hosts, and if we had no hosts to support us we should die of starvation. But what are the true grounds for this statement concerning the nations that act as "hosts"? Where it is not based on limited physiocratic views it is founded on the childish error that commodities pass from hand to hand in continuous rotation.
Breitenstein's Verlags-Buchhandlung. He also thought it would put his own settlements at risk. It is considered one of the most important texts of early Zionism. As expressed in this book, Herzl envisioned the founding of a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century. He argued that the best way to avoid anti-semitism in Europe was to create this independent Jewish state. The book encouraged Jews to purchase land in Palestine, although the possibility of a Jewish state in Argentina is also considered. Herzl popularized the term "Zionism", which was coined by Nathan Birnbaum.