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STARs are presented in diagrammatic format on a chart which comprises two main elements: a. Additional elements on the STAR chart include the following: a. Vertical restrictions designed to contain aircraft in controlled airspace and to separate aircraft from obstacles and to avoid, to the degree possible, conflict with departing aircraft. Speed restrictions designed for flow control purposes. Runway-in-use; d.

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Several blood biomarkers have been identified which are helpful in supporting atrial fibrillation AF diagnosis, prognosis and outcomes. Since catheter ablation has become the cornerstone of non-pharmacological AF treatment the interest for blood biomarkers reflecting and predicting outcomes after this treatment strategy has rapidly grown [1].

Natriuretic peptides have previously been established for a variety of cardiovascular diseases as important markers of increased mortality and morbidity, e. Recently, Hijazi et al. Some studies demonstrated reduction of transcardiac BNP levels after AF catheter ablation emphasizing the significance of the left atrium as initial origin for BNP production in AF [4]. Because of its involvement in cardiac fibrosis, inflammation and remodelling processes, galectin-3 Gal-3 is one of the emerging biomarkers in cardiac diseases [5].

Together with NT-pro-BNP, Gal-3 demonstrated better prognostic value for mortality in general population and in patients with heart failure [6].

AF is associated with structural remodeling based on pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic changes in atrial tissue, thus suggesting an association between Gal-3 and AF. A recently published analysis of more than 3, participants of the Framingham Offspring cohort found that higher circulating Gal-3 concentrations were associated with increased risk of developing AF [7].

However, there are no systematic analyses of this biomarker in AF available and a possible association with rhythm outcomes after catheter ablation has not been investigated. Consequently, this study, for the first time, i compared Gal-3 in AF patients with a AF-free cohort, ii assessed trans-cardiac and trans-pulmonary gradients, iii assessed the impact of AF catheter ablation, and iv evaluated its potential prognostic impact for predicting rhythm outcome.

We recruited patients with symptomatic AF who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation at Heart Center Leipzig, Germany and fourteen AF-free controls matched for age, gender and heart disease. The study was approved by the local ethics committee Medical Faculty, Leipzig University and patients provided written informed consent for participation. Paroxysmal and persistent AF was defined according to current guidelines [8].

Persistent AF was defined as any AF episode either lasting longer than 7 days or requiring drug or direct current cardioversion for termination. In all AF patients, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography was performed prior to ablation.

All class I or III antiarrhythmic medications with the exception of amiodarone were discontinued Date: Apr. Publisher: Public Library of Science. Document Type: Article. Length: 3, words. Methods Study population We recruited patients with symptomatic AF who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation at Heart Center Leipzig, Germany and fourteen AF-free controls matched for age, gender and heart disease.

Access from your library This is a preview. Get the full text through your school or public library. Source Citation Kornej, Jelena, et al. Accessed 5 June

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National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Read more Kornej, Pjer. Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. To learn more about how to request items watch this short online video.

DIN 74324 PDF

Galectin-3 in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation

Several blood biomarkers have been identified which are helpful in supporting atrial fibrillation AF diagnosis, prognosis and outcomes. Since catheter ablation has become the cornerstone of non-pharmacological AF treatment the interest for blood biomarkers reflecting and predicting outcomes after this treatment strategy has rapidly grown [1]. Natriuretic peptides have previously been established for a variety of cardiovascular diseases as important markers of increased mortality and morbidity, e. Recently, Hijazi et al. Some studies demonstrated reduction of transcardiac BNP levels after AF catheter ablation emphasizing the significance of the left atrium as initial origin for BNP production in AF [4]. Because of its involvement in cardiac fibrosis, inflammation and remodelling processes, galectin-3 Gal-3 is one of the emerging biomarkers in cardiac diseases [5].

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