Leucas aspera Willd. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. If you would like to support this site, please consider Donating.
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The plant is used traditionally as an antipyretic and insecticide. Medicinally, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive and cytotoxic activity. Further, studies reveal the presence of various phytochemical constituents mainly triterpenoids, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and b-sitosterol, nicotine, sterols, glucoside, diterpenes, phenolic compounds 4- hydroxyoxon-propyltetracosanyl -phenol.
These studies reveal that L. Leucas aspera Willd. Flowers are valued as stimulant, expectorant, aperient, diaphoretic, insecticide and emmenagogue. Leaves are considered useful in chronic rheumatism, psoriasis and other chronic skin eruptions.
Bruised leaves are applied locally in snake bites. Leucas aspera is an annual, branched, herb erecting to a height of cm with stout and hispid acutely quadrangular stem and branches. Leaves are sub-sessile or shortly petiolate, linear or linearly lanceolate, obtuse, pubescent up to 8.
Corolla 1 cm long; tube 5 mm long and pubescent above, annulate in the middle; upper lip 3 mm long, densely white-woolly; lower lip about twice as long, the middle lobe obviate, rounded, the lateral lobes small, subacute.
Fruit nutlets, 2. Diagrammatic TS of young stem is quadrangular in outline with four distinct collenchymatous ridges, covered with hairs. It shows a narrow cortex and a ring of vascular tissue encircling the wide stele. Detailed TS shows an epidermis covered with thick cuticle, traversed occasionally with stomata and bears simple, multicellular three to four-celled uniseriate lignified trichomes and sessile, glandular trichomes with multicellular head; narrow parenchymatous cortex, except under the ridges where it is collenchymatous, distinct endodermis and parenchymatous pericycle, especially; stellar region consisting of a ring of vascular bundles connected with interfascicular sclerenchymatous band; very narrow parenchymatous phloem, and radially arranged xylem tissue.
In old stem, trichomes are few, phloem tissue is wide and found on either side of the wide xylem band; pith is parenchymatous, wide and embedded with acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. TS of leaf passing through the midrib is broadly convex on the lower side and slightly grooved or flat on the upper side, a centrally located conjoint and collateral meristele associated with a parenchymatous pericycle layer on lower side, collenchymatous tissue underneath both the epidermis; dorsiventral lamina epidermis covered with thick cuticle, traversed with stomata, bears simple and glandular trichomes of the same type as found on stem, 1 to 2 layered palisade tissue occupying the major area of the section and spongy parenchyma.
Preliminary chemical examination of L. The flower is reported to contain 10 compounds; among them amyl propionate The unsaponifiable fraction contained 3-sitosterol and ceryl alcohol.
In vitro study of chloroform and ether extracts of L. Leucas aspera had both fungistatic and fungicidal actions. Leucas aspera was tested for its prostaglandin PG inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The ext. The smoke of leaves of Vitex negundo and L. The methanol extract of L. The essential oils from L. The ethanolic extract was subjected to acetic acid induced writhing inhibition, 1,1-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl DPPH free radical scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for screening of antinociceptive, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity, respectively.
The ethanolic extract of L. The extract showed significant lethality to brine shrimp. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Pharmacogn Rev v. Pharmacogn Rev. Prajapati , J. Patel , 1 K. Modi , 1 and M. Shah 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr.
E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, lamiaceae, Leucas aspera , triterpenoid. Leaf TS of leaf passing through the midrib is broadly convex on the lower side and slightly grooved or flat on the upper side, a centrally located conjoint and collateral meristele associated with a parenchymatous pericycle layer on lower side, collenchymatous tissue underneath both the epidermis; dorsiventral lamina epidermis covered with thick cuticle, traversed with stomata, bears simple and glandular trichomes of the same type as found on stem, 1 to 2 layered palisade tissue occupying the major area of the section and spongy parenchyma.
Prostaglandin inhibitory and antioxidant activities Leucas aspera was tested for its prostaglandin PG inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Toxicity evaluation of herbal smoke and synthetic mosquito mat on Culex quinquefasciatus The smoke of leaves of Vitex negundo and L.
Antimicrobial activity of Leucas aspera flowers The methanol extract of L. Antimicrobial action of some essential oils. Antinociceptive, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Leucas aspera root The ethanolic extract was subjected to acetic acid induced writhing inhibition, 1,1-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl DPPH free radical scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for screening of antinociceptive, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity, respectively.
Pharmacognostical evaluation of Leucas aspera. Nat Prod Sci. Nadkarni KM. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan; Indian Materia Medica; p. Shirazi AM. Studies on Leucas aspera. Indian J Pharm. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. Ltd; A taxonomic approach to the study of medicinal plants and animal derived drugs; pp.
New Delhi: Periodical Experts; Indian Medicinal Plants; pp. Hooker JD. London: The Muston Company; The Flora of British India; p. Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants; pp. Kamat M, Singh TP. Preliminary chemical examination of some compounds in the different parts of the genus Leucas. Chaudhury NA, Ghosh D. Insecticidal plants: Chemical examination of Leucas aspera. J Indian Chem Soc. Isolation and identification of nicotine from leucas aspera willd Indian J Pharm Sci. Chemical investigations on Leucas aspera.
Isolation of compound-A, 3-sitosterol and et-sitosterol from the aerial parts. Scientifi c Res. Chemical investigation of Leucas aspera. J Inst Chem. Diterpenes from Leucas aspera inhibiting prostaglandin-induced contractions. J Nat Prod. Separation of Leucas aspera , a medicinal plant of Bangladesh, guided by prostaglandin inhibitory and antioxidant activities.
Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo ; 51 —8. Volatile constituents of Leucas aspera WilId. J Essent Oil Res. Examination of the component fatty acids of the oil from the seeds of Leucas aspera.
Lab Dev. Minor seed oils. X: Physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of seven minor oils. J Oil Technol Assoc India. A novel phenolic compound from Leucas aspera Spreng. Indian J Chem Br. Two aliphatic ketols from Leucas aspera. Long-chain compounds from Leucas aspera.
A triterpenoid lactone from Leucas aspera. In vitro trials of plant extracts and chemicals for their antifungal activity.
Indian J Animal Health. Antimicrobial activity of Leucas aspera flowers. Rao B, Narasimha GV.
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Thumbai Herb Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients
The plant is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases such as cough, cold, diarrhea, and inflammatory skin disorder. A variety of phytoconstituents have been isolated from the Leucas species, which include lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, terpenes, fatty acids, and aliphatic long-chain compounds. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities have been reported in the extracts of these plants and their phytoconstituents. An overview of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological investigations on the Leucas species is presented in this review. Plants are indispensible sources of medicine since time immemorial. Studies on natural products are aimed to determine medicinal values of plants by exploration of existing scientific knowledge, traditional uses, and discovery of potential chemotherapeutic agents.
A review: Ethnobotanical survey of genus Leucas
Leucas aspera is a plant species within the genus Leucas and the family Lamiaceae. Although the species has many different common names depending on the region in which it is located, it is most commonly known as Thumbai or Thumba. Found throughout India, it is known for its various uses in the fields of medicine and agriculture. Leucas aspera is commonly found throughout India and the Philippines as well as the plains of Mauritius and Java. Leucas aspera is typically found in dry, open, sandy soil and is abundant in areas with waste.