The raw data supporting the conclusions of this manuscript will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher. Previous studies have shown that creativity is enhanced by a broad attentional scope, defined as an ability to utilize peripheral stimuli and process information globally. We propose that the reverse relationship also holds, and that breadth of attention also is a consequence of engaging in a creative activity. In Study 1, participants showed increased breadth of attention in a visual scanning task after performing a divergent thinking task as opposed to an analytic thinking task.

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Dariusz K. Economics — prof. Jerzy Kisielnicki. Kulikova Russian Federation , Douglas E. Selvage United States of America. The original version of the journal is the printed version. Muslims in Warsaw. Fiszer Shaping and development of Polish-German relations in the years — An assessment attempt. Od Redakcji. Wyznawcy islamu w Warszawie. We are handing to our readers the third issue of our academic quarterly in which is extensive, very interesting and published entirely in English.

It contains as many as twelve valuable articles and two reviews. The presented quarterly should be of interest not only to social scientists, historians, economists but also specialists and experts, students, graduate students, teachers and journalists. We especially recommend it to politicians and decision makers whose wisdom, knowledge and decision-making skills largely determine the effectiveness of foreign policy and the role of each country — including Poland — in the international arena.

This volume contains a number of original scholarly papers devoted to current economic, financial, social, political and international problems with which the European Union and the whole world is struggling today. There are also several texts devoted to Poland, its internal and foreign policy.

This periodical shows how quickly today the situation on the international stage changes and that new social, political, economic and international phenomena and processes occur, which should be analysed by scholars and experts, as well as political elites in real time.

The presented issue of our quarterly, according to the previous practice and rules adopted by the editorial office, consists of two parts: the first one which is devoted to broadly understood economic issues, and the other pertaining to political issues and the international situation in Europe and in the world.

In the first part we are publishing four articles. Every health care system is characterized through the prism of how it fulfils three basic functions: financing, provision of services and regulations. According to the author, these three dimensions show the essential role of the state and the direction of its policy in different models.

The author proved that during this period working conditions in terms of accidents at work were not particularly improved. Work in Poland did not become safer. In the years — the number of accidents at work in general as well as the rates did not change. Another study in this part is an interesting article by Maciej D. The authors analyse here a few important problems faced by the trade union movement today, and which go beyond the traditional discussion on the role and importance of trade unions in the free market economy.

The author emphasizes here that Europe needs a common sense of security, a uniform perception of threats, and thus a joint risk assessments. In this regard, the European Union should create new forms a framework of intelligence cooperation, something like an intelligence agency, from services of which all its Members would benefit.

Unfortunately, as the author stresses, there is still no political will for this solution. It is devoted to significant problems, namely to peaceful and conciliatory activities of the Vatican in the international arena.

In international relations the Holy See functions using both classical diplomacy and so-called track two diplomacy. Its primary goal is to provide its followers with the possibility to freely practice their worship and to disseminate religious freedom in the world. The author writes here. As the title indicates, the aim of this article is to answer the questions regarding the situation of different churches and religious denominations in Romania. The authors show here the still progressing secularization in Romania, and on the other hand, an increase in religiosity among the citizens of this state.

The author writes, among others, that as a result of the immigration crisis Poland, following Western countries, moves towards fairly restrictive immigration policy, basically opposing the influx of Muslim immigrants. One of the main reasons of the expansion of jihadism in Egypt is — according to the author — frequent change of authorities and the general destabilization of the internal situation in the country after , i.

The main thesis of the article is the observation that in the years — in Polish-German relations had dealt with their difficult normalisation, continuation and at the same time significant changes, not always favourable for Poland, especially in the years — The author stresses here that the years —, and especially the years — were a time of great international events in Europe and in the world which had a major impact on foreign policies of both countries and on Polish-German relations.

Referring to the theories of alliances and. This article presents the main tasks which Poland should undertake to strengthen its security in the next 5—10 years. The presented issue of the quarterly — as always — closes with two reviews of the latest, very interesting and valuable scholarly books devoted to the EU policy towards China, and domestic and foreign policy of Japan, especially in the years —, that is, in the era of the rule of the Democratic Party of Japan DPJ. We wish all our readers interesting reading and we encourage everyone to cooperate with our editorial board and Lazarski University, one of the best universities in Poland.

It is not only a great award for us but also a great honour and a commitment to further academic, educational and organizational efforts. These three dimensions allow you to capture the fundamental role of the state and the direction of its policies in individual models.

Studies show, however, that over the last 40 years the models have become similar to one another. As a result, today it is hard to speak of pure — model — solutions because these are in fact hybrids based in varying degrees on individual basic versions2.

According to OECD, health systems in the world are subjected to similar pressure but the response to this pressure is varied because in each country public policy makers and stakeholders conduct various debates concerning the organisation and financing.

It is, however, only a certain cutting of very complex reality. Solving real problems must be preceded by an analysis of institutional issues in the context of the historical trajectory of development. Rothgang, H. The converging role of the state in OECD healthcare systems. In Rothgang, H. The state and healthcare, comparing OECD countries. London, p. As the OECD research shows3, citizens living in a centralised health care system or a model of national health systems are more likely to support greater government involvement in health care.

Those who live in an insurance system are more sceptical in this respect. It seems that this can be explained by reluctance of societies to experiment in the field of such important public policies. Hence the commitment to the existing model and the consent to deepening it, which is seen as less risky than the introduction of elements of a foreign system.

In the literature4 it is stressed that health care systems are complex adaptive systems CAS , which results in their significant unpredictability and resistance to changes introduced by means of classic authoritarian tools.

Kikuzawa, S. Similar pressures, different context: public attitudes toward government intervention for health care in 21 nations. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol.

Brest, A. Large-system transformation in health care: a realist review. The Milbank Quarterly, vol. The area of social policies is very little susceptible to quantification, or even measurement of the quality of services because, for instance, there is no unified method for measuring the results of clinical procedures, or even widely accepted definition of their quality.

What is more, universal social and health security is a rule in developed countries. The government must, therefore, on the one hand, enforce cost control and thinking oriented towards economic efficiency. On the other hand, it must take into account a key group — doctors — who passionately defend their professional autonomy.

Then there are patients — often represented by their attorneys — who demand maximum space to make decisions about the treatment and often in the areas that require professional competence5. The above diagram illustrates interactions that occur between the main actors in building a health care system ensuring the quality of services, albeit implemented with respect to economic efficiency.

In order to obtain satisfactory results, it is therefore necessary to find a balance of power between the three entities mentioned above. Reforms implemented in the spirit of governance focus primarily on strengthening the position of society which usually has been a too weak partner, in particular in relations with the administration acting in the field of the empire. This convention emphasises, however, also the participation of NGOs in co-management, which in the above diagram fit in the regions of its central point — a little closer to the public or the medical profession depending on the profile.

They can primarily play the role of a relay of information, an aggregate of public sentiment, a support system, or an arbitrator in emerging disputes. Their place would be, however, in principle outside the area defined as a formal management structure. Depending on the intensity of the stimuli — the health care system in the given country is more oriented to the needs of the patient or general notions of clinical effectiveness. At this point we should note that the above diagram shows that formal structures do not cover the entire space of interaction in this field.

They leave a lot of space for non-formal interactions which affect the quality of the system to a similar extent. Ergo: it is impossible to build an effective health care system only on the basis of formal actions. It is necessary to perceive real interactions in their whole complexity and to use methods of soft law or informal channels of communication and decision-making.

This, in turn, 5. Kodate, N. Events, public discourses and responsive government: quality assurance in health care in England, Sweden and Japan. Journal of Public Policy, no. Thus, an economic analysis of the law is a research perspective which was adopted here. This interdisciplinary convention assumes the treatment of the law just like any other object of research, which economics deals with, while recognizing its whole juridical complexity.

It should be emphasised, however, that the limitation to only such assumptions would be insufficient, because this study concerns the protection of human health and life and a decent existence, which often escape the economic quantification. Hence the need to supplement the discussion with the context of non-economic values, allowing us to take into account the impact of public policies that are analysed here on wider social reality.

The preparation of this text was preceded by conducting comparative research in the field of the law system normative acts, soft law in the area of health policy in selected developed countries in terms of the level of implementation of the demands of the concept of governance in a dynamic perspective, taking into account the current direction of changes and projected trends.

The conducted analysis of public policies will focus on those elements that allow for the fullest realisation of interactive management. In order to show the context, the discussed practices will be also assessed from the perspective of implementation of the demands of New Public Management, understood as a modern form of managerial approach to administration.

The central place in the analysis, however, will be occupied by the concept of governance good governing , the essence of which is to make decisions and take actions which are characterised by engaging all stakeholders, the rule of law, transparency, responding to social needs, striving for consensus, taking into account voices of minorities, efficiency, as well as broad responsibility towards society.

Eight countries characterised by high socio-economic. The group chosen in this way allows us to observe differences between various traditions, to indicate characteristic solutions, compare the operation of the most important mechanisms in order to evaluate individual institutions in order to identify good practices.

Only on this basis it is possible to correctly propose postulates de lege ferenda. Proposing such conclusions will be possible also because the analysis of health care and social systems of the above countries concerns not only the current state, but is made in a dynamic perspective, allowing us to observe the basic directions of reforms.


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